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Table 6 Oesophageal cancer; meta-analysis results

From: Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and cancer in Europe and North America

     Heterogeneity
Type of ST (region)a Adjustments/restrictionsb Number of estimates (RR/OR ids)c Random-effects RR/OR (95% CI) χ2 I2 P2)
Any Overall data 10 (5, 6, 9, 10, 11, 13, 16, 19, 22, 23) 1.25 (1.03–1.51) 10.3 13.0 0.324
  Smoking-adjusted 7 (5, 6, 10, 11, 19, 22, 23) 1.13 (0.95–1.36) 4.4 0.0 0.623
  Never smokers 4 (7, 10, 11, 19) 1.91 (1.15–3.17) 1.0 0.0 0.810
Any (USA)d Overall data 6 (9, 10, 11, 13, 16, 19) 1.56 (1.11–2.19) 5.2 4.6 0.387
  Smoking-adjusted 3 (10, 11, 19) 1.89 (0.84–4.25) 1.0 0.0 0.617
  Never smokers 3 (10, 11, 19) 1.89 (0.84–4.25) 1.0 0.0 0.617
Snuff (Scandinavia) Overall data 4 (5, 6, 22, 23) 1.10 (0.92–1.33) 1.8 0.0 0.61
  Smoking-adjusted 4 (5, 6, 22, 23) 1.10 (0.92–1.33) 1.8 0.0 0.61
  Never smokers 1 (7) 1.92 (1.00–3.68) -- -- --
  1. a For each study/sex, the RR/OR for ST from Table 5 was included if available, otherwise that for chewing tobacco or snuff was used.
  2. b Smoking-adjusted includes estimates for smokers and non-smokers combined, adjusted for smoking if available, and estimates for never smokers otherwise.
  3. c The actual estimates included are identified by their RR/OR identification numbers as given in Table 5.
  4. d Includes estimates 10 and 11 from a study in Puerto Rico [49]
  5. CI = confidence interval; ST = smokeless tobacco; OR = odds ratio; RR = relative risk.