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Table 7 Stomach cancer; individual effect (relative risk/odds ratio) estimates

From: Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and cancer in Europe and North America

  ST use    RR/OR
Sourcea Typeb Exposurec Smoking Sexd Id. Casese Estimate (95%CI)d Adjustment factorsf
Cohort studies         
Lutheran Brotherhood: Kneller et al. 1991 [12] ST Ever Any M 1 18 1.60 (0.58–4.50) age, byr, smok
    Never M 2 3 3.80 (1.00–14.32) age, byr
US Veterans: Winn et al. 1982 [19] ST Ever Never Mg 3 NA 1.51 (NA) age
CPS-II: Chao et al. 2002 [24] ST Current Never M 4 8 1.58 (0.76–3.28) age, asp, diet, edu, fhis, race, vit
   Former    5 2 1.11 (0.27–4.50)  
   Ever    6 10 1.45 (0.75–2.80)h  
Norway cohorts: Boffetta et al. 2005 [26] Snuff Current Any M 7 42 1.00 (0.71–1.42) age, smok
   Former    8 32 1.29 (0.87–1.91)  
   Ever    9 74 1.11 (0.83–1.48)  
Swedish construction workers: Zendehdel et al. 2008 [34] Snuff Ever Any M 10 311 1.08 (0.96–1.22)i age, bmi, smok
   Ever Never M 11 76 1.33 (1.03–1.72)j age, bmi
Case-control studies         
Bjelke 1974 (USA) [52] Chew Use Any NA 12 NA no association NA
Bjelke 1974 (Norway) [52] Chew Use Any NA 13 NA association NA
Williams and Horm 1977 [55] ST Ever Any M 14 12 1.31 (0.71–2.43)h age, race, smok
     F 15 2 1.50 (0.36–6.26) none
Weinberg et al. 1985 [67] Chew Ever Any M 16 NA no association none
Hansson et al. 1994 [94] Snuff Use Any M+F 17 NA 0.70 (0.47–1.06) age, ses, sex, smok
Ye et al. 1999 [107] Chew Ever Any M+F 18 8 1.30 (0.54–3.12)h none
  Snuff Ever   M 19 83 0.77 (0.56–1.06)h age, alc, bmi, res, ses, smok
    Never M 20 11 0.50 (0.20–1.20) age, alc, bmi, res, ses
Lagergren et al. 2000 [108] Snuff Ever Any M+F 21 53 1.20 (0.80–1.80) age, alc, bmi, diet, edu, exer, rflx, sex, smok
  1. a Fuller details of the studies are given in Tables 1 and 2.
  2. b ST implies smokeless tobacco unspecified, or combined snuff use or chewing.
  3. c Ever, former and current ST use were compared with never ST. Use indicates timing not given and comparison is with non use.
  4. d NA = not available.
  5. e 'Id.' is the RR/OR identification number used in Table 8, and 'Cases' is the number of cases in ST users as defined. NA = not available.
  6. f Abbreviations used: alc = alcohol, asp = aspirin, bmi = body mass index, byr = birth year, edu = education, exer = exercise, fhis = family history of stomach cancer, incm = incidence or mortality, res = area of residence, rflx = reflux symptoms, ses = socioeconomic status, smok = smoking, vit = vitamins, NA = not available.
  7. g The population included < 0.5% females.
  8. h Estimated from data provided in the source.
  9. i RRs for cardia (1.0, 95% CI 0.8–1.4) and noncardia stomach cancer (1.1, 1.0–1.3) combined.
  10. j RRs for cardia (0.9, 95% CI 0.4–2.0) and noncardia stomach cancer (1.4, 1.1–1.9) combined.
  11. CI = confidence interval; ST = smokeless tobacco; OR = odds ratio; RR = relative risk.