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Table 9 Pancreatic cancer; individual effect (relative risk/odds ratio) estimates

From: Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and cancer in Europe and North America

  ST use    RR/OR
Sourcea Typeb Exposurec Smoking Sex Id. Casesd Estimate (95%CI)e Adjustment factorsf
Cohort studies         
Lutheran Brotherhood: Zheng et al. 1993 [13] ST Ever Any M 1 16 1.70 (0.90–3.10) age, alc, smok
US Veterans: Winn et al. 1982 [19] ST Ever Never Mg 2 NA 1.65 (NA) age
Norway cohorts: Boffetta et al. 2005 [26] Snuff Current Any M 3 27 1.60 (1.00–2.55) age, smok
   Former    4 18 1.80 (1.04–3.09)  
   Ever    5 45 1.67 (1.12–2.50)  
   Ever Never   6 3 0.85 (0.24–3.07) age
Swedish construction workers: Luo et al. 2007 [32] Snuff Ever Any M 7 NA 0.90 (0.70–1.20) age, bmi, smok
   Current Never   8 18 2.10 (1.20–3.60) age, bmi
   Former    9 2 1.40 (0.40–5.90)  
   Ever    10 20 2.00 (1.20–3.30)  
Case-control studies         
Williams and Horm 1977[55] ST Ever Any M 11 3 0.29 (0.09–0.92)h age, race, smok
Falk et al. 1988 [75] Chew Use Any M+F 12 NA no association none
  Snuff     13 NA no association  
Farrow and Davis 1990 [82] Chew Ever Any M 14 NA 0.80 (NA) edu, race
Ghadirian et al. 1991[84] Chew Use Any M+F 15 NA no association none
Muscat et al. 1997 [101] Chew Ever Neveri M 16 6 2.82 (0.85–9.39)j none
  Snuff   Any   17 2 1.32 (0.22–7.93)  
Alguacil and Silverman 2004 [111] ST Ever Neverk M+F 18 5 1.10 (0.40–3.10) age, race, res, sex, smokk
Hassan et al. 2007 [114] Chew Ever Any M+F 19 34 0.70 (0.40–1.10) age, alc, diab, edu, mar, race, res, sex, smok
    Never   20 10 0.60 (0.30–1.40) age, alc, diab, edu, mar, race, res, sex
  Snuff Ever Any   21 18 0.60 (0.30–1.10) age, alc, diab, edu, mar, race, res, sex, smok
    Never   22 4 0.50 (0.10–1.50) age, alc, diab, edu, mar, race, res, sex
  ST Ever Any   23 52 0.65 (0.43–0.97)l age, alc, diab, edu, mar, race, res, sex, smok
    Never   24 14 0.57 (0.29–1.11)l age, alc, diab, edu, mar, race, res, sex
  1. a Fuller details of the studies are given in Tables 1 and 2.
  2. b ST implies smokeless tobacco unspecified, or combined snuff use or chewing.
  3. c Ever, former and current ST use were compared with never ST. Use indicates timing not given and comparison is with non use.
  4. d 'Id.' is the RR/OR identification number used in Table 10, and 'Cases' is the number of cases in ST users as defined. NA = not available.
  5. e NA = not available.
  6. f Abbreviations used: alc = alcohol consumption, bmi = body mass index, diab = diabetes, edu = education, mar = marital status, res = area of residence, smok = smoking.
  7. g The population included < 0.5% females.
  8. h RR/OR and/or 95% CI estimated from data provided in the source.
  9. i Includes long-term (10+ years) quitters.
  10. j Personal communication from Dr Muscat. The estimate given in the source of 3.60 (1.00–12.80) is for noncurrent smokers.
  11. k Estimates are for never cigarette smokers with adjustment for other tobacco use.
  12. l RR/OR and/or 95% CI estimated from data provided in the source assuming that no one both chewed and used snuff.
  13. CI = confidence interval; ST = smokeless tobacco; OR = odds ratio; RR = relative risk.