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Table 1 Interventions known to reduce exacerbation frequency or frequency of hospitalisation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

From: Management and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations: a state of the art review

Pharmacological Non-pharmacological
Long-acting β2 agonists Pulmonary rehabilitation
Long-acting anticholinergics Lung volume reduction surgery
Inhaled corticosteroids Long-term oxygen therapy
Mucolytics Domiciliary non-invasive ventilation
Erythromycin (macrolide) Influenza vaccination