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Table 2 Goniometer positioning and standardization procedure for all five joint angles.

From: Development of lower limb range of motion from early childhood to adolescence in cerebral palsy: a population-based study

  Extremity position Goniometer:
stationary arm
movable arm
End position Additional standardization
Hip abduction Supine. Test leg in natural (extended position). Along a line joining the two anterior superior iliac spines. Parallel to longitudinal axis of femur. Hip abducted to limit of motion Pelvis stabilized by fixing opposite leg slightly abducted and flexed over edge of plinth.
Hip external rotation Prone. With extended hips and the test leg knee flexed to 90°. Tester holding the tested leg and secure the pelvic rotation by stabilizing the pelvis with the other hand. Parallel to the plinth. Parallel to longitudinal axis of tibia. External rotation to limit of motion just before pelvis just starts to lift from plinth.  
Popliteal angle Supine. Test leg flexed to 90° hip and knee. Place one hand at the anterior aspect of the knee, and other at the distal calf, posteriorly. Parallel to the sagittal plane of femur. Parallel to the sagittal plane of tibia. Knee extended to limit of motion.
Estimate the degrees of the angle on the posterior side of the flexed knee. A fully extended knee is 180°.
Contralateral leg maintained in extension to stabilize the pelvis.
Knee extension Supine with extended hips and knees. Parallel to femur and trochanter major. Parallel to tibia and the lateral malleol. Knee extended to limit of motion.
Extension deficit is reported with minus.
Foot dorsiflexion Supine. The knee extended. Parallel to the longitudinal axis of fibula. Parallel to the longitudinal axis of fifth metatarsal. Foot dorsiflexed to limit of motion. Hind foot maintained in neutral to avoid calcaneal valgus or varus.