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Table 2 Enzymes co-regulated at the gene and protein level by Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 1 (STAT1)

From: STAT1-dependent expression of energy metabolic pathways links tumour growth and radioresistance to the Warburg effect

Pathway Gene Symbol Description Function
GG ALDH1A1 Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member A1 Oxidation of acetaldehyde to acetate
GG ALDH2 Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 family (mitochondrial) Oxidation of acetaldehyde to acetate
GG ALDOA Aldolase A, fructose-bisphosphate Cleavage of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate into glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate
GG ENO1 Enolase 1, (alpha) Dehydration of 2-phosphoglycerate to phosphoenolpyruvate
GG ENO2 Enolase 2 (gamma, neuronal) Dehydration of 2-phosphoglycerate to phosphoenolpyruvate
GG ENO3 Enolase 3 (beta, muscle) Dehydration of 2-phosphoglycerate to phosphoenolpyruvate
GG GAPDH Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase Oxidation and phosphorylation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate with reduction of NAD+ to NADH
GG GPI Glucose phosphate isomerase Conversion of glucose 6-phosphate to fructose 6-phosphate
GG LDHA Lactate dehydrogenase A Reduction of pyruvate to lactate with oxidation of NADH to NAD+
GG LDHAL6B Lactate dehydrogenase A-like 6B Reduction of pyruvate to lactate with oxidation of NADH to NAD+
GG LDHB Lactate dehydrogenase B Reduction of pyruvate to lactate with oxidation of NADH to NAD+
GG PGAM1 Phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (brain) Conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to 2-phosphoglycerate
GG PGK1 Phosphoglycerate kinase 1 Phosphoryl transfer from 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate to ADP with formation of 3-phosphoglycerate and ATP
GG PGM1 Phosphoglucomutase 1 Interconversion of glucose 1-phosphate and glucose 6-phosphate
GG PKM2 Pyruvate kinase type 2, muscle Phosphoryl transfer from phosphoenolpyruvate to ADP with formation of pyruvate and ATP
GG TPI1 Triosephosphate isomerase 1 Interconversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
OP ATP5A1 ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, alpha subunit 1, cardiac muscle Synthesis of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate
OP ATP5O ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, O subunit Synthesis of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate
OP ATP5B ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, beta polypeptide Synthesis of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate
OP COX4I1 Cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV isoform 1 Oxidation of cytochrome C with reduction of O2 to H2O
OP/CC SDHA Succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A, flavoprotein (Fp) Oxidation of succinate to fumarate with reduction of FAD+ to FADH2
CC MDH2 Malate dehydrogenase 2, NAD (mitochondrial) Oxidation of malate to oxaloacetate with reduction of NAD+ to NADH
  1. GG, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis; OP, oxidative phosphorylation; CC, citrate cycle