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Table 1 Psychoeducational studies for depression and/or anxiety.

From: Psychoeducation for depression, anxiety and psychological distress: a meta-analysis

Study Aims of study Study design/intervention Population Primary outcome measures Outcomes of interest Effect size (cohen's d) a JQRb
Christensen et al. (2004) [10] To evaluate the efficacy of a psycho-
education website
RCT; Blue Pages (n = 136) versus attention placebo controls (telephone calls; n = 157)
Format: individual
Community residents (18 to 52 years) with internet access in Canberra, Australia Center for Epidemiologic Studies
(CES-D).
Compared to controls, intervention participants showed a significant reduction in depressive symptoms as measured with the CES-D at post-test and 12 mo follow up, but not at 6 months Post-test:c
0.31 (s)
3
Mackinnon et al. (2008) [24] (BluePages) for community dwelling adults with symptoms of depression Content: evidence-based medical/psychological depression-information plus weekly telephone calls
Type: Psycho-educational website.
Duration: 6 weeks.
Post-test/follow up points: post-test, 6 and 12 months
  Cut-off score: ≥ 16   6 months
0.25 (s)
12 mo:0.37 (m)
2
3
Geisner et al. (2006) [22] To evaluate the efficacy of a brief, mailed personalized feedback intervention designed to alleviate depressed mood RCT; brief mailed personalized valid feedback (n = 89) versus attention placebo controls (thank-you letter; n = 88).
Format: individual.
Content: empathic statement, feedback on test-results and advice.
Type: email
Duration: 1 session.
Post-test/follow up points: 1 month
College students (18 years and older) from West coast public university, USA Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)
Cut-off score: ≥ 14
DSM-IV-based Depression Scale (DDS)
Cut-off score not reported
Compared to controls, intervention participants showed a significant reduction in depressive symptoms as measured with the DDS but not with the BDI BDI:
0.07 (s)
DDS:
0.07 (s)
 
Jacob et al. (2002) [23] To determine the effect of patient education on outcome of depression RCT; education intervention (n = 34) versus no intervention (n = 32).
Format: individual.
Content: evidence-based medical/psychological depression/anxiety information and advice.
Type: leaflets.
Duration: 1 session.
Post-test/follow up: 2 months
Asian women (18 year and older) in primary care in the UK General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)
Cut-off score: ≥ 3
Compared to controls, intervention participants showed a significant higher recovery rate of common mental disorders as measured with the GHQ (odds ratio: 2.99, 95% confidence interval: 1.03-1.7) GHQ:
0.61 (m)d
4
Kawakami et al. (1999) [25] To examine the effects of mailed advice on reducing psychological distress RCT; mailed personalized valid feedback and advice (n = 81) versus no intervention (n = 77). Format: individual.
Content: personalized feedback of test-results and advice to reduce psychological distress. Type: email
Duration: 1 session.
Post-test/follow up: 12 mo
Workers employed in a manufacturing plant in Japan GHQ
Cut-off score not reported
There was no significant difference between controls and intervention participants in GHQ-scores 0.04 (s) 2
  1. a Calculations are between group effect sizes. Where multiple effect sizes for one time point were possible, the largest effect size is reported.
  2. b JQR = Jadad Quality Rating
  3. c s = small; m = moderate
  4. d effect size is based on ITT data