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Table 2 Mean outcomes in treatment groups and effects of the addition of the McKenzie method to the recommended first-line care.

From: The effectiveness of the McKenzie method in addition to first-line care for acute low back pain: a randomized controlled trial

Outcome N** Unadjusted mean outcome (SE) Adjusted mean outcome (SE) Treatment effect* (95% CI) Pvalue
   McKenzie First-line Care McKenzie First-line Care McKenzie - First-line Care  
Pain        0.02
   1 week 70/69 3.5 (0.3) 3.7 (0.3) 3.6 (0.2) 4.0 (0.2) -0.4 (-0.8 to -0.1)  
   3 weeks 70/68 2.0 (0.2) 2.3 (0.3) 1.8 (0.2) 2.5 (0.2) -0.7 (-1.2 to -0.1)  
   Mean pain over first 7 days 70/69 4.9 (0.2) 4.9 (0.2) 4.7 (0.2) 5.0 (0.2) -0.3 (-0.5 to -0.0)  
Global perceived effect        
   1 week 70/68 2.6 (0.2) 2.1 (0.2) 2.6 (0.2) 2.1 (0.2) 0.5 (-0.0 to 1.1) 0.07
   3 weeks 70/69 3.6 (0.1) 3.3 (0.2) 3.6 (0.1) 3.3 (0.2) 0.3 (-0.3 to 0.8) 0.33
Disability §        0.74
   1 week 70/68 8.4 (0.7) 9.0 (0.8) 8.0 (0.5) 8.2 (0.5) -0.2 (-1.5 to 1.0)  
   3 weeks 70/69 4.6 (0.7) 4.5 (0.7) 4.8 (0.7) 5.1 (0.7) -0.3 (-2.3 to 1.6)  
Function        0.90
   1 week 70/68 6.2 (0.3) 5.8 (0.3) 6.2 (0.2) 6.2 (0.2) 0.0 (-0.4 to 0.5)  
   3 weeks 70/69 7.9 (0.2) 7.7 (0.3) 7.8 (0.2) 7.7 (0.3) 0.0 (-0.7 to 0.8)  
  1. *Treatment effects are model-based adjusted differences in outcomes between groups. For a global perceived effect, which was measured only at two time points after randomization, adjusted means and treatment effects are the same as unadjusted means and treatment effects. Primary outcomes are highlighted in italics. Effectiveness of the addition of the McKenzie method is indicated by negative effects for pain and disability and by positive effects of global perceived effect and function. **Number of participants in McKenzie/First-line Care groups for whom data were available.
  2. Numerical rating scale, scored from 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst pain possible).
  3. Global perceived effect scale scored from -5 (much worse) to 5 (completely recovered). §Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, scored from 0 (no disability) to 24 (high disability).
  4. Patient Specific Functional Scale, scored from 0 (unable to perform activity) to 10 (able to perform activity at pre-injury level).
  5. SE, standard error.
  6. CI, confidence interval.