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Table 2 Outcomes and definitions

From: Reporting methods in studies developing prognostic models in cancer: a review

  % (n = 47) articles
Primary outcome  
   Overall survival 66 (31)
   Disease free survival (DFS) 34 (16)
Definition of outcomes  
   Overall survival (n = 31)  
Explicitly death from any cause 15 (7)
Cancer death only 21 (10)
Type of death unclear 30 (14)
   Disease free survival (n = 16)  
DFS including death* 10 (5)
DFS not including death 13 (6)
DFS but unclear if includes death 10 (5)
   Multivariable outcome clearly defined‡ 60 (28)
  1. * In one study it was not clear if DFS deaths included all deaths or only cancer specific deaths
  2. ‡ In two articles it was unclear how many outcomes were examined