Skip to main content


Table 3 Variables in multivariable analysis

From: Reporting methods in studies developing prognostic models in cancer: a review

  % (n = 47) articles
Coding of variables in model  
   Coding explicit for all candidate variables 68 (32)
   Coding explicit for all variables in final model‡ 70 (33)
Coding of continuous candidate variables  
   All continuous 2 (1)
   All categorised/dichotomised 51 (24)
   Combination of continuous and categorised variables 19 (9)
   No continuous candidate variables 0 (0)
   Unclear/not reported 28 (13)
  Median (IQR)
Number of variables  
   Candidates used to develop model* (n = 46) 11 (7 to 14) (2 to 27)
   Included in final model** (n = 44) 4 (3 to 6) (2 to 12)
  1. ‡ Two papers could not be assessed as the final model was unclear.
  2. * In four articles variables were excluded where it was unclear if these were candidate variables. In one article the number of candidate variables was completely unclear
  3. ** Three articles could not be included: two because the final model was not presented in the paper, one because it was not clear which of the alternative models in the paper was the final model.