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Table 2 Reasons for excluding retrieved studies

From: Does targeting manual therapy and/or exercise improve patient outcomes in nonspecific low back pain? A systematic review

Study Reason for exclusion (studies may have also met other exclusion criteria)
Browder DA, et al. (2007)[37] Not a two-group plus subgroup covariate RCT or multi-arm subgroup system RCT
Cairns MC, et al. (2006)[38] Not a trial of targeted versus non-targeted manual therapy or exercise
Celestini M, et al. (2005)[39] Not a trial of targeted versus non-targeted manual therapy or exercise
Cherkin DC, et al. (1998)[40] Not a trial of targeted versus non-targeted manual therapy and/or exercise
Childs JD, et al. (2003)[41] Not an RCT
Chiradejnant A, et al. (2002)[42] Not a two-group plus subgroup covariate RCT or multi-arm subgroup-system RCT
Chiradejnant A and Kanlayanaphotporn R (2005)[43] Conference abstract only
Chiradejnant A, et al. (2003)[44] More than 15% with neurological signs
Clare HA, et al. (2007)[45] No relevant outcome measures
Descarreaux M, et al. (2002)[46] Not a two-group plus subgroup covariate RCT or multi-arm subgroup system RCT
Elnaggar IM, et al. (1991)[47] Not a trial of targeted versus non-targeted manual therapy and/or exercise
Erhard, RE, et al. (1994)[48] Targeted versus targeted treatment
Fritz JM, et al. (2003)[20] Not a two-group plus subgroup covariate RCT or multi-arm subgroup system RCT
Fritz JM, Whitman JM, Childs JD. (2005)[49] Post-hoc analysis (hypothesis-setting)
Fritz JM, et al. (2007)[50] More than 15% with neurological signs
Geisser ME, et al. (2005)[51] Not a two-group plus subgroup covariate RCT or multi-arm subgroup system RCT
Gillan MG, et al. (1998)[52] Not NSLBP
Goodsell M, et al. (2000)[53] Targeted versus no treatment
Greenman PE (1996)[54] Not an RCT
Hough E, et al. (2007)[55] Not a trial of targeted versus non-targeted manual therapy and/or exercise
Konstantinou K, et al. (2007)[56] Cross-over trial, effect size diluted
Mayer JM, et al. (2005)[57] Not a trial of targeted versus non-targeted manual therapy and/or exercise
Miller ER, et al. (2005)[58] Baseline-scores are not similar between groups (T-test)
Monticone M, et al. (2004)[59] Effects of manual therapy, traction or exercise not reported independently of other treatments
Mujic, SE, et al. (2004)[60] Not a trial of targeted versus non-targeted manual therapy and/or exercise
Newton WP (1995)[61] Not an RCT
North American Spine Society Board of Directors (2003)[62] Not an RCT
O'Brien N, et al. (2006)[63] Not a trial of targeted versus non-targeted manual therapy and/or exercise
O'Sullivan PB, et al. (1997)[64] Not a two-group plus subgroup covariate RCT or multi-arm subgroup system RCT
Petersen T, et al. (2002)[65] Not a two-group plus subgroup covariate RCT or multi-arm subgroup system RCT
Petersen T, et al. (2007)[66] Not a two-group plus subgroup covariate RCT or multi-arm subgroup system RCT
Riipinen M, et al. (2005)[67] Hypothesis-generating study, not hypothesis-testing study
Rossignol M, et al. (2000)[68] No relevant intervention
Schenk RJ, et al. (2003)[69] More than 15% with neurological signs
Skikiæ EM, et al. (2004)[70] Not a trial of targeted versus non-targeted manual therapy and/or exercise
Spratt, KF, et al. (1993)[71] Effects of manual therapy, traction or exercise not reported independently of other treatments
Stankovic R, Johnell O (1990)[72] Not a trial of targeted versus non-targeted manual therapy and/or exercise
Sweetman BJ, et al. (1993)[73] Not a trial of targeted versus non-targeted manual therapy or exercise
Wright A, et al. (2005)[74] Not a trial of targeted versus non-targeted manual therapy and/or exercise
  1. NSLBP, nonspecific low back pain; RCT, randomized controlled trials.