Skip to main content

Table 4 Summary of clinical prediction rules.

From: Does targeting manual therapy and/or exercise improve patient outcomes in nonspecific low back pain? A systematic review

Brennan 2006[18] Delitto Treatment-Based Classification system
Baseline examination data were used to classify participants into one of three classification subgroups: Specific exercise: centralize with two or more movements in the same direction (that is, Flexion or extension) or centralize with a movement in one direction and peripheralize with an opposite movement. Manipulation: onset of symptoms <16 days and no symptoms distal to the knee. Stabilization: at least three of the following: Average straight leg raise range of movement >91 degrees, positive Prone Instability Test, positive aberrant lumbar spine movement, age <40. (Traction was a potential fourth group, but was not included in this study).
Childs 2004[19] Flynn manipulation prediction rule
Patients were classified as positive (likely to respond to manipulation) if they met at least four of these five criteria: Duration of current episode of symptoms less than 16 days, location of symptoms not extending distal to the knee, score on the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (work subscale) less than 19 points, at least one lumbar spine segment judged to be hypomobile, at least one hip with more than 35° of internal rotation range of motion.
Hancock 2008[26] Flynn manipulation prediction rule
As above (Flynn 2003)[35].
Long 2004[21] McKenzie directional preference-based exercise
Patients were classified as having an extension, flexion or lateral directional preference.