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Table 2 Characteristics of trials excluded from the meta-analysis

From: Does chocolate reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis

Trial; location Study design; treatment/control groups Dosage; duration Active ingredients per daily dosage Mean age; mean BMI N treatment/control Reason for exclusion
Grassi et al. [19]; Italy Crossovera,c 100 g/d 500 mg polyphenols 33.9 yr; 15/15 Same population and protocol as studied in Grassi et al. [11]
  Dark/white chocolate 15 d   22.6   
Allen et al. [34], Erdman et al. [35]; USA Crossoverb; 22g/d Not reported 44.7 yr; 44/44 No cocoa-free control group
  Chocolate + plant sterols/chocolate + no plant sterols 28 d (4 wk)   27.8   
Balzer et al. [36]; USA Parallel; 3 drink mix/d 963 mg flavanols; 63.8 yr; 21/20 No mean SBP/DBP (SD) reported
  High/low-flavanol drink 30 d (4 wk) control: 75 mg flavanols 32.1   
Faridi et al. [37]; USA Crossovera,c; 74 g bar with 22 g cocoa/d; 821 mg flavanols 53 yr; 44/44 Duration < 2 wk
  Dark chocolate/placebo bar Single dose, 1 d   30   
Ried et al. (phase 2) [23]; Australia Crossoverd; 50 g/d; control: 1 capsule/d; 750 mg polyphenols; 53.1 yr; 26/26 Crossover of two active treatment groups, no true control group
  Dark chocolate/Tomato extract capsules 56 days (8 wks) control: tomato extract (15 mg lycopene) 26.6   
Almoosawi et al. [38]; UK Crossovera,c; 20 g/d; 1000 mg polyphenols; 31 yr; 14/14 Two dosages, no true control group
  Dark chocolate dosage 1/dosage 2 14 days control: 500 mg 27.7   
  1. a7-day cocoa/flavanol-free run-in period.
  2. b2-week run-in period.
  3. c7-day washout period before crossover.
  4. d4-week washout period.
  5. For abbreviations, see Table 1 footnote.