Skip to main content

Table 4 Subgroup analyses by study design and type of control

From: Does chocolate reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis

Subgroups SBP DBP
   Mean difference in mmHg (95% CI) P I 2 Mean difference in mmHg (95% CI) P I 2
Study design Crossover [10, 12, 13, 18, 20, 21, 23] -4.91 (-7.94, -1.88) 0.002 80% -3.24 (-5.36, -1.12) 0.003 67%
  Parallel [11, 1517, 2123] -2.01 (-3.42, -0.60) 0.005 9% -1.20 (-2.29, -0.11) 0.03 12%
  Parallela [11, 15, 17, 2123] -0.43 (-2.80, 1.94) 0.72 0% -0.25 (-1.83, 1.33) 0.75 0%
Type of control Flavanol-free: white chocolate, milk, pills [11, 15, 17, 20, 21] -4.21 (-6.65, -1.77) 0.0007 82% -2.81 (-4.52, -1.10) 0.001 70%
  Low-flavanol: drink, bar, tablet [10, 13, 16, 18, 2224] 0.74 (-2.92, 4.40) 0.69 53% -0.38 (-2.00, 1.24) 0.65 0%
  1. SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; mmHg, millimetre mercury; CI, confidence interval; P, probability value (P < 0.05 statistically significant); I 2, heterogeneity test.
  2. aSensitivity analysis excluding trial [16], as this trial used a notably lower dose and longer duration than the other trials included in the meta-analysis.