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Table 1 Individual-factor associations between potential confounders and axillary temperature measures throughout the newborn period

From: Neonatal hypothermia and associated risk factors among newborns of southern Nepal

Potential risk factor No. < 35°C Measures Prevalence rate (per 100 measures) Adjusted prevalence rate (95% confidence interval)*
Infant-level variables     
Sex     
Male 1271 109893 1.16  
Female 1863 103743 1.80 1.54 (1.42, 1.67)
Birth weight     
≥ 2500 g 1620 147663 1.10  
2000 - 2499 g 879 52970 1.66 1.67 (1.53, 1.82)
1500 - 2000 g 445 8854 5.03 5.34 (4.66, 6.12)
< 1500 g 160 973 16.44 17.3 (12.6, 23.6)
Gestational age     
≥ 37 wks 2281 176380 1.29  
34 - 37 wks 720 34182 2.11 1.64 (1.37, 1.83)
< 34 wks 132 2961 4.46 4.39 (3.38, 5.73)
Small for gestational age (SGA)     
Not SGA 1041 92199 1.13  
SGA 2062 118148 1.75 1.65 (1.51, 1.79)
Parental level variables     
Maternal age (years)     
< 15 23 996 2.31  
15.0-19.9 752 53029 1.42 0.66 (0.39, 1.09)
20.0-24.9 1169 84573 1.38 0.61 (0.37, 1.02)
25.0-29.9 686 46819 1.47 0.64 (0.38, 1.07)
30.0-34.4 348 19552 1.78 0.77 (0.46, 1.30)
35.0+ 156 8667 1.8 0.77 (0.45, 1.32)
Maternal literacy     
No 2553 159538 1.60  
Yes 580 53983 1.07 0.67 (0.61, 0.75)
Maternal education (years)     
None 2589 163391 1.58  
1-3 57 4730 1.21 0.74 (0.53, 1.05)
4-6 199 15945 1.25 0.76 (0.65, 0.89)
7-9 150 13440 1.12 0.70 (0.58, 0.84)
10+ 139 16130 0.86 0.58 (0.46, 0.72)
Paternal literacy     
No 1582 93307 1.70  
Yes 1551 120120 1.29 0.77 (0.71, 0.84)
Paternal education (years)     
None 1667 99134 1.68  
1-3 132 8812 1.50 0.91 (0.74, 1.11)
4-6 459 32131 1.43 0.85 (0.76, 0.96)
7-9 432 32422 1.33 0.78 (0.69, 0.89)
10+ 444 41137 1.08 0.66 (0.59, 0.75)
Paternal occupation     
Farmer/unskilled laborer 2398 155637 1.54  
Skilled worker 732 57647 1.27 0.82 (0.74, 0.90)
Maternal hypothermia at baseline     
None/mild (≥ 36.0°C) 2733 193117 1.42  
Moderate/severe (< 36.0°C) 324 11128 2.91 1.45 (1.27, 1.66)
Labour and delivery variables     
Place of birth     
Facility 122 16405   
Non-facility 2985 189450   1.62 (1.27, 2.06)
Time to placental delivery (min)     
< 1 195 14994 1.30  
1 - 3 882 56613 1.56 1.09 (0.89, 1.32)
3 - 5 424 28785 1.47 1.08 (0.88, 1.33)
5 - 10 810 55650 1.46 1.02 (0.84, 1.24)
10 - 30 438 29472 1.49 1.05 (0.85, 1.30)
> = 30 342 17829 1.92 1.33 (1.06, 1.67)
Birth attendant     
Skilled 138 16297 0.85  
Non-skilled 2966 189232 1.57 1.47 (1.19, 1.82)
Household and socioeconomic status variables     
Caste     
Other castes 2822 183562 1.54  
Upper (Brahmin/Chhetri) 263 26996 0.97 0.63 (0.54, 0.74)
Ethnic group     
Hills (Pahadi) 626 59542 1.05  
Plains (Madeshi) 2454 150824 1.63 1.59 (1.44, 1.76)
Latrine     
Other/none 2828 186190 1.52  
Brick/cement 179 17820 1.00 0.71 (0.59, 0.86)
Pit latrine 73 6004 1.22 0.82 (0.62, 1.10)
Household has electricity     
No 2429 159851 1.52  
Yes 655 50540 1.30 0.87 (0.78, 0.96)
Household has television     
No 2644 172871 1.53  
Yes 440 37500 1.17 0.80 (0.71, 0.90)
Newborn care practices     
Breastfeeding initiation (hours)     
< 24 1452 120253 1.21  
> = 24 1595 90658 1.76 1.49 (1.37, 1.62)
Timing of cord cutting     
Before placenta 63 8219 0.77  
After placenta delivered 3018 195031 1.55 1.74 (1.31, 2.33)
Baby bathed after birth†     
No 332 21696 1.53  
Yes 2768 183386 1.51 1.18 (1.02, 1.36)
Time to giving baby first bath (hours)‡     
> 24 19 1797 1.06  
12.0 - 23.9 131 8148 1.61 0.97 (0.56, 1.71)
6.0 - 11.9 224 13407 1.67 0.98 (0.57, 1.67)
3.0 - 5.9 153 7458 2.05 1.21 (0.69, 2.12)
1.0 - 2.9 826 50679 1.63 1.05 (0.53, 1.51)
< 1 1409 101084 1.39 0.90 (0.53, 1.51)
Oil massage given after bath‡     
No 360 22407 1.61  
Yes 2397 160386 1.49 0.75 (0.66, 0.95)
Room warmed during first 14 days     
No 304 36622 0.83  
Yes 2744 175008 1.57 1.04 (0.90, 1.19)
Baby wears cap during first 14 days     
No 271 37738 0.72  
Yes 2777 173870 1.60 0.85 (0.71, 1.02)
Skin to skin contact during first 14 days     
No 2799 201332 1.39  
Yes 221 9471 2.33 1.41 (1.18, 1.68)
  1. * All estimates are adjusted for the age of the baby and the minimum ambient temperature on the day of measurement.
  2. † Data was collected at the time of first assessment after the birth and the timing of this visit was variable. For those met very early, respondents might report 'no bath', even though baby was probably given a bath after these data were collected.
  3. ‡ These variables only measured among those reporting a bath had been provided to the newborn.