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Table 1 Characteristics of the evaluated 10 trials investigating exercise effects on bone strengtha

From: Targeted exercise against osteoporosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis for optimising bone strength throughout life

Reference Population Intervention Site Measured Measurement Technique
  Children and Adolescents    
Macdonald et al. [19] EX: N = 281, CON: N = 129
Age: 10.2 (0.6), boys and girls
Duration: 16 months
EX: 1 step: 15 min of physical activity (PA) 5 times per week
2 step: 5-36 jumps per day 4 times per week
CON: Two 40-min physical education (PE) classes per week
Distal tibia
Tibial midshaft
pQCT
Macdonald et al. [20] EX: N = 293, CON: N = 117,
Age: 10.2 (0.6), boys and girls
Duration: 16 months
EX: 1 step: 15 min of PA 5 times per week
2 step: 5-36 jumps per day 4 times per week
CON: Two 40-min PE classes per week
Hip DXA-derived
hip structural analysis
MacKelvie et al. [21] EX: N = 31, CON: N = 33,
Age: 10.2 (0.5), boys
Duration: 24 months
EX: 10-12 min of high-impact PA 3 times per week
CON: 10-min stretch during PE class and a stretch break during class
Hip DXA-derived
hip structural analysis
Petit et al. [22] EX: N = 87, CON: N = 90,
Age: 10.1-10.5 (0.5), girls
Duration: 7 months
EX: 10-12 min of high-impact PA 3 times per week
CON: 10-min stretch during PE class and stretch break during class
Hip DXA-derived
hip structural analysis
Weeks et al. [23] EX: N = 52, CON: N = 47
Age: 13.8 (0.4), boys and girls
Duration: 8 months
EX: 10-min high-impact PA 2 times per week
CON: Warmup and stretching exercises during PE classes 2 times per week
Hip DXA-derived estimation of cross-
sectional moment of inertia (CSMI)
  Adults    
Vainionpaa et al. [24] EX: N = 39, CON: N = 41,
Age: 38 (2), women
Duration: 12 months
EX: 60-min workout classes including steps and hops 3 times per week and 10-min daily steps and hops
CON: Normal daily activity
Proximal tibia
Midfemur
DXA-derived estimation of cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI)
  Older Adults    
Cheng et al. [13] EX: N = 20, CON: N = 20,
Age: 50-57, women
Duration: 12 months
EX: Supervised high-impact circuit training session 2 times per week
and similar home exercises 4 times per week
CON: Normal daily activity
Tibial midshaft, Proximal tibia
Midfemur, Proximal femur
QCT-derived maximum
moment of inertia (I max)
Karinkanta et al. [15] EX: N = 112, CON: N = 37,
Age: 73 (2)
Duration: 12 months
EX: Resistance, balance jumping, and their combination group 3 times per week, including at least 50%-60% of repetition maximum (RM) and jumps
CON: Normal daily activity
Distal tibia, tibial shaft
Femoral neck
DXA-derived hip structural analysis
pQCT derived bone strength index (BSI)
Liu-Ambrose et al. [53] EX: N = 66, CON: N = 32
Age: 79 (3)
Duration: 6 months
EX: Resistance and agility training group 2 times per week
including at least 50%-60% of RM and ball games, dance movements
CON: stretching
Distal tibia, Tibial shaft pQCT-derived polar stress
strain index (SSI)
Uusi-Rasi et al. [14] EX: N = 41, CON: N = 41,
Age: 53 (2)
Duration: 12 months
EX: 20-min multidirectional jumps and steps 3 times per week
CON: Normal daily activity
Distal tibia, tibial shaft
Femoral neck
DXA-derived bone strength index (BSI)
pQCT-derived bone strength index (BSI)
  1. a EX, exercise group; CON, control group; pQCT, peripheral quantitative computed tomography; DXA, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry.