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Table 4 Plasma polyphenol concentrations (nmol/L).

From: Blood cell gene expression associated with cellular stress defense is modulated by antioxidant-rich food in a randomised controlled clinical trial of male smokers

  Control (n = 10) Antioxidant-rich diet (n = 10)  
  Baseline Change Baseline Change Pvaluea
Paraxanthin 3.2 (0.4-5.9) -0.9 (-3.6-0.6) 2.0 (0.0-7.1) -0.5 (-3.3-0.2) 0.85
Quercetin 24.5 (2.0-67.8) 3.1 (-65.8-22.2) 21.2 (2.0-54.6) 22.2 (-0.9-193.6) 0.11
3-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid 85.0 (28.9-605.7) 15.6 (-309.4-91.4) 92.3 (26.1-294.4) 50.4 (-90.5-735.4) 0.51
4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid 500.6 (376.1-1038.2) -37.5 (-254.1-353.0) 587.9 (400.5-923.6) -106.4 (-497.7-225.9) 0.68
Vanillic acid 128.9 (99.0-679.5) -41.0 (-153.3-42.1) 118.7 (73.8-318.4) 64.2 (-3.8-552.0) 0.02
Protocatechuic acid 112.5 (54.3-327.5) -5.8 (-71.4-23.4) 88.7 (61.8-156.1) 31.9 (6.6-53.8) 0.03*
Homovanillic acid 95.6 (77.9-279.1) -1.4 (-187.5-21.3) 87.3 (77.6-144.0) 17.3 (-21.6-255.5) 0.08
3,4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid 150.1 (92.6-199.8) -5.5 (-89.4-24.8) 158.4 (107.8-235.8) 31.4 (-54.1-102.7) 0.12
Gallic acid 30.4 (16.0-63.3) -4.6 (-28.9-20.7) 21.7 (15.5-29.8) 20.3 (0.8-39.8) 0.01*
p-coumaric acid 20.8 (11.9-110.2) -6.5 (-65.0-1.8) 15.3 (5.6-36.1) 10.4 (-15.4-83.1) 0.08
Caffeic acid 203.1 (32.7-656.5) -29.2 (-255.4-24.7) 97.6 (36.8-193.5) -10.4 (-112.0-232.4) 0.31
Enterolactone 18.1 (4.8-39.2) 9.1 (-2.6-55.1) 13.0 (6.2-50.6) 10.5 (-4.7-40.6) 1.00
  1. Biomarkers of polyphenol intake.
  2. Group median with 95% confidence interval.
  3. aA Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the change in the antioxidant-rich diet group compared to controls.
  4. *Significant P < 0.05. Baseline values were not significantly different between the groups. P values not shown.