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Table 8 Effect sizes for functional activity

From: The effects of increased dose of exercise-based therapies to enhance motor recovery after stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Time-point Study Measure used Augmented therapy Standard therapy Mean difference
    No. subjects Mean (SD) No. subjects Mean (SD) Effect size [95% CI]
Outcome         
   6 weeks after start therapy Donaldson ARAT 10 41.8 (17.8) 8 45.0 (14.0) 3.2 [-17.9,11.5]
   20 weeks after start therapy Kwakkel ARAT 29 9.0 (28.9) 34 0.0 (1.5) 9.0 [-1.5,19.5]
   5 weeks after start therapy Lincoln ARAT 87 1.0 (25.9) 90 5.0 (28.2) -4.0 [-12.0,4.0]
  Subtotal - ARAT 126   132   0.1 [-5.7,6.0]
   6 weeks after start therapy Donaldson 9 Hole Peg Test 10 0.2 (0.2) 8 0.2 (0.1) 0.0a [-0.1,0.1]
   5 weeks after start therapy Lincoln 10 Hole Peg Test 87 0.0 (19.3) 90 0.0 (41.5) 0.0a [-9.5,9.5]
   5 weeks after start therapy Lincoln Rivermead arm 87 3.0 (5.9) 90 4.0 (5.2) -1.0 [-2.6,0.6]
   6 weeks after start therapy Cooke Rivermead mobility 31 36.6 (10.4) 32 34.6 (10.8) 2.0 [-3.2,7.2]
   6 weeks after start therapy Cooke Walk 0.8 m/s or more 31 11 32 4 3.9 c [1.1,13.9]
   6 weeks after start therapy Cooke Comfort walk speed 32 0.6 (0.5) 31 0.3 (0.4) 0.3 [0.1,0.5]
   20 weeks after start therapy Kwakkel Comfort walk speed 26 0.7 (0.5) 34 0.4 (0.4) 0.3 [0.1,0.5]
  Subtotal - comfort walk speed 58   65   0.3 [0.1,0.5]
   20 weeks after start therapy Kwakkel Max walk speed 26 0.9 (0.7) 34 0.5 (0.6) 0.4 [0.1,0.7]
   20 weeks after start therapy Kwakkel FAC 29 4 (1.5) 34 3 (2.2) 1.0 [0.1,2.0]
   6 weeks after start therapy Partridge 5 metre walk time 33 49.2 (32.0) 22 39.9 (29.9) 9.3 [-7.3,25.9]
   5 weeks after start therapy Lincoln Rivermead Gross Function 87 3.0 (4.4) 87 5.0 (5.2) -2.0 [-3.4,-0.6]
Follow-up 1         
   26 weeks after start therapy Kwakkel ARAT 29 4.0 (28.2) 34 0.0 (1.85) 4.0 [-6.3,14.3]
   3 months after stroke Rodgers ARAT 54 53.0 (27.4) 51 54.0 (41.5) -1.0 [-14.5,12.5]
  Subtotal - ARAT 83   85   2.2 [-6.0, 10.4]
   18 weeks after start therapy Cooke Rivermead mobility 28 36.6 (9.8) 23 39.7 (5.7) -3.1 [-7.4,1.2]
   3 months after start therapy GAPS Rivermead mobility 32 9.7 (3.3) 34 8.1 (3.6) 1.6 [-0.1,3.3]
  Subtotal - Rivermead mobility 60   57   1.0 [-0.6,2.5]
   18 weeks after start therapy Cooke Comfort walk speed 27 0.6 (0.5) 23 0.4 (0.4) 0.2 [-0.1,0.5]
   26 weeks after start therapy Kwakkel Comfort walk speed 26 0.6 (0.5) 34 0.4 (0.4) 0.2 [-0.0,0.4]
  Subtotal - Comfort walk speed 59   61   0.2 [-0.1,0.4]
   3 months after stroke Rodgers Frenchay Arm Test 54 4.0 (2.2) 51 4.0 (3.7) 0.0 [-1.2,1.2]
   3 months after start therapy Lincoln Rivermead arm 84 3.0 (5.9) 84 5.0 (5.2) -2.0 [-3.7,-0.3]
   6 months after start therapy Partridge 5 metre walk time 27 35.8 (16.5) 33 49.4 (32.1) -13.6 [-26.2,-1.0]
   3 months after start therapy Lincoln Rivermead Gross Function 84 5.0 (5.2) 84 6.0 (5.9) -1.0 [-2.7,0.7]
   26 weeks after start therapy Kwakkel FAC 26 5.0 (0.7) 34 4.0 (2.2) 1.0 [0.2,1.8]
   18 weeks after start therapy Cooke Walk 0.8 m/s or more 27 10 23 4 2.8 [0.8,10.6]
   26 weeks after start therapy Kwakkel Max walk speed 26 0.9 (0.7) 34 0.6 (0.6) 0.3 [-0.0,0.6]
Follow-up 2         
   6 months after start therapy Lincoln ARAT 81 3.0 (28.9) 81 19.0 (33.3) -16.0 [-25.6,-6.4]
   52 weeks after start therapy Kwakkel ARAT 28 6.0 (31.3) 33 1.0 (21.1) 5.00 [-8.6,18.7]
   6 months after stroke Rodgers ARAT 48 55.0 (31.9) 48 56.0 (23.7) -1.0 [-12.2,10.2]
  Subtotal - ARAT 157   162   -6.4 [-12.8,0.0]
   6 months after start therapy Lincoln 10 Hole Peg Test 81 0 (40.7) 81 0 (45.2) 0.0 [-13.3,13.3]
   6 months after stroke Rodgers Frenchay Arm Test 48 5.0 (3.0) 48 4 (3.0) 1.0 [-0.2,2.2]
   6 months after start therapy Lincoln Rivermead arm 81 4.0 (6.7) 81 6.0 (5.9) -2.0 [-4.0,-0.1]
   6 months after start therapy Lincoln Rivermead Gross Function 81 6.0 (5.9) 81 7.0 (3.7) -1.0 [-2.5,0.5]
   52 weeks after start therapy Kwakkel Max walk speed 25 0.9 (0.6) 33 0.7 (0.6) 0.2 [-0.1,0.5]
   52 weeks after start therapy Kwakkel FAC 25 5 (0.7) 33 4 (1.48) 1.0 [0.4,1.6]
   6 months after start therapy GAPS Rivermead mobility 30 10.2 (3.1) 34 9.1 (4.0) 1.1 [-0.6,2.8]
   52 weeks after start therapy Kwakkel Comfort walk speed 25 0.6 (0.5) 33 0.5 (0.4) 0.1 [-0.1,0.3]
  1. a = fixed effect model used; b = random effect model used; c = odds ratio used; FU = Follow-up; * = = < 0.05; ARAT = Action Research Arm Test; FAC = Functional Ambulation Category