Skip to main content

Table 1 Risk factors, comprehensive control measures and endpoint control targets for each of five major neglected tropical diseases (NTDs)

From: Control of neglected tropical diseases needs a long-term commitment

Disease Major factors for human infection Comprehensive control measures Endpoint targets of control
Onchocerciasis Parasites
Black flies (transmitting infective larvae during blood feeding)
Human activities (near black fly breeding sites)
Treatment with ivermectin
Health education for self-protection
Case management
Elimination
Lymphatic filariasis Parasites
Mosquitoes (transmitting infective larvae during blood feeding)
Poor sanitation (mosquito breeding sites)
Human behaviour (without self-protection)
Treatment with albendazole plus ivermectin or diethylcarbamazine
Self-protection (bed net)
Health education for behavioural change
Hygiene and sanitation
Case management
Elimination as a public health problem worldwide by the year 2020
Schistosomiasis Parasites
Intermediate host snails in fresh water releasing infective larvae
Poor hygiene and sanitation
Human behaviour (water contact and defecating/urinating in/near water)
Treatment with praziquantel
Snail management
Health education for behavioural change
Hygiene and sanitation
Clean water supply
Hospitalisation of severe cases
Morbidity control
Soil-transmitted helminthiasis Parasites
Poor hygiene and sanitation
Human behaviour (passing eggs to the environment in faeces, barefoot, not washing hands, and so on)
Treatment with albendazole or mebendazole
Health education for behavioural change
Hygiene and sanitation
Clean water supply
Morbidity control
Trachoma Bacteria
Poor hygiene and sanitation
Human behaviour (lack of facial washing)
SAFE strategy:
Surgical case management (S)
Treatment with azithromycin (A)
Clean water supply for facial washing (F)
Hygiene and sanitation in the environment (E)
Health education for behavioural change
Elimination as a blinding disease worldwide by the year 2020