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Table 1 Biomarkers under investigation for Alzheimer's disease

From: Diagnosis and biomarkers of predementia in Alzheimer's disease

Correlates: Method/source: Alzheimer's disease-related biomarkers:
Molecularcore neuropathology Cerebrospinal fluid - Concentrations of amyloid-β42;
   - Total Tau and phosphorylated Tau;
  In vivo molecular imaging - Intracerebral beta-amyloid load (e.g., PiB-PET, 18F-BAY94-9172);
   - Intracerebral aggregates of amyloid and tangle Tau(e.g., 18F-FDDNP);
Downstreamsecondary changes Structural neuroimaging(MRI) - Regional (medial temporal) atrophy (MRI)
   - Volumetry of hippocampus/entorhinal cortex (MRI)
   - Rate of brain/regional atrophy (MRI)
   - Voxel-based morphometry (VBM)a
   - Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)a
  Functional neuroimaging(PET, SPECT, fMRI) - Metabolic changes (FDG-PET)
   - Regional perfusion (SPECT)
   - Functional MRIa and MRI perfusion-Functional connectivitya
  Neurochemistry - Proton spectroscopy (+H-MRS)a
Associatedhomeostatic changes Peripheral fluids(serum, plasma, platelets) - Inflammatory markers (interleukins, cytokines)a
   - Oxidative stress (isoprostanes)a
   - Aβ40/Aβ42 ratio*;
   APP ratioa
   - Glycogen synthase kinase-3β activitya
   - Other markers of synaptic damage/neurodegenerationa
  1. a Less validated biomarkers; Aβ, amyloid-beta peptide; APP, amyloid precursor protein; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; MRS, magnetic resonance spectroscopy; PET, positron emission tomography; SPECT, single-photon emission tomography; FDG, fluoro-deoxyglucose; PiB, Pittsburgh Compound B; FDDNP, 2-(1-{6-[(2-[18F]Fluoroethyl)(methyl)amino]-2-naphthyl}ethylidene)malononitrile.