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Table 2 Models for predicting risk of prevalent (undiagnosed) diabetesa

From: Developing risk prediction models for type 2 diabetes: a systematic review of methodology and reporting

Study Year Country Definition of diabetes as reported Risk predictors in the model
Al Khalaf et al. [60] 2010 Kuwait Diagnosis of diabetes based on ADA 2003 criteria. If FPG was ≥ 7.0 mmol/L or random glucose was ≥ 11.1 mmol/L, participants were classified as having newly diagnosed diabetes. Age, waist circumference, blood pressure medication, diabetes in sibling
Al-Lawati et al. [41] 2007 Oman Diabetes was diagnosed according to 1998 WHO criteria for OGTT (FPG 11.1 mmol/l 2-h post 75-g glucose load Age, waist circumference, BMI, family history of diabetes, hypertension
Baan et al. [42] 1999 The Netherlands Diabetes defined as use of antidiabetic medication (insulin or oral hypoglycaemic medication) and/or 2-h PG ≥ 11.1 mmol/L according to WHO criteria Age, sex, use of antihypertensive medication, obesity (BMI ≥ 30)
Bang et al. [43] 2009 USA Undiagnosed diabetes defined as FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L (≥ 126 mg/dL) Age, sex, family history of diabetes, history of hypertension, obesity (BMI or waist circumference), physical activity
Borrell et al. [59] 2007 USA FPG ≥ 126 mg/dL Age, sex, ethnicity, family history of diabetes, self-reported hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, periodontal disease
Chaturvedi et al. [44] 2008 India Undiagnosed diabetes defined as those with FPG ≥ 126 mg/dL (≥ 7.0 mmol/L) but who were not aware of their glycaemic status Age, blood pressure, waist circumference, family history of diabetes
Gao et al. [45] 2010 China Diabetes defined according to 2006 WHO/IDF criteria. In individuals without known diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes was determined if person had FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L and/or postchallenge PG ≥ 11.1 mmol/L Age, waist circumference, family history of diabetes
Glümer et al. [46] 2004 Denmark Individuals without known diabetes and with FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L or 2-h PG ≥ 11.1 mmol/L defined as having SDM Age, BMI, sex, known hypertension, physical activity, family history of diabetes
Keesukphan et al. [47] 2007 Thailand 75-g OGTT carried out as outlined by WHO Diabetes Study Group Age, BMI, history of hypertension
Ko et al. [48] 2010 Hong Kong All subjects underwent 75-g OGTT using 1998 WHO criteria (FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L and/or 2-h PG ≥ 11.1 mmol/L Age, sex, BMI, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, family history of diabetes, gestational diabetes
Mohan et al. [49] 2005 India Diagnosis of diabetes based on WHO Consulting Group criteria, that is, 2-hr PG ≥ 200 mg/dL Age, abdominal obesity (waist circumference), physical activity, family history of diabetes
Pires de Sousa et al. [50] 2009 Brazil FPG > 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L), that is, provisional diagnosis of diabetes according to ADA criteria, classified as type 2 diabetes patients Age, BMI, hypertension
Ramachandran et al. [51] 2005 India Diabetes diagnosis based on 2-h PG ≥ 11.1 mmol/L Age, family history of diabetes, BMI, waist circumference, physical activity
Ruige et al. [52] 1997 The Netherlands Participants underwent 75-g OGTT and were classified according to WHO criteria Frequent thirst, pain during walking with need to slow down, shortness of breath when walking, age, sex, obesity (BMI), obesity (men), family history of diabetes, use of antihypertensive drugs, reluctance to use bicycle for transportation
Tabaei and Herman [53] 2002 Egypt Undiagnosed diabetes defined based on FPG ≥ 126 mg/dL and/or 2-h PG ≥ 200 mg/dL Age, random plasma glucose, postprandial time, sex, BMI
  1. aSDM, screen-detected diabetes; ADA, American Diabetes Association; BMI, body mass index; WHO/IDF, World Health Organisation/International Diabetes Federation; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test; 2-h PG, two-hour 75-g postload plasma glucose level.