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Table 2 Levels of physical activity in people with metabolic syndrome and HRs of all-cause and CVD-related deathsa

From: Even low level of physical activity is associated with reduced mortality among people with metabolic syndrome, a population based study (the HUNT 2 study, Norway)

  All-cause mortality CVD-related deaths
PA index Number Person-years Deaths HRb HRc (95% CI) Ptrend Deaths HRb HRc (95% CI) Ptrend
< 65 years old 9,883          
   Inactivec   9,357 70 1.0 1.0 (Ref.)   15 1.0 1.0 (reference value)  
   Low   41,723 203 0.62 0.71 (0.54 to 0.94)   61 0.87 1.03 (0.58 to 1.83)  
   Moderate   30,398 114 0.52 0.58 (0.43 to 0.79)   26 0.56 0.63 (0.33 to 1.20)  
   High   28,119 73 0.46 0.52 (0.37 to 0.73)   17 0.51 0.60 (0.29 to 1.22)  
       < 0.001     0.02
≥65 years old 3,566          
   Inactived   5,620 375 1.0 1.0 (Ref.)   171 1.0 1.0 (reference value)  
   Low   13,347 522 0.76 0.75 (0.65 to 0.86)   235 0.76 0.76 (0.62 to 0.93)  
   Moderate   10,157 361 0.70 0.65 (0.56 to 0.76)   140 0.61 0.58 (0.46 to 0.74)  
   High   4,293 121 0.69 0.59 (0.47 to 0.74)   46 0.59 0.52 (0.37 to 0.73)  
       < 0.001     < 0.001
  1. aCVD, cardiovascular disease; PA, physical activity; HR, hazard ratio; CI, confidence interval; badjusted for age (continuous); cadjusted for age (continuous), sex (men and women), marital status (married or unmarried, widow or widower, divorced or separated), education level attained (≤10 years, 11 to 14 years, ≥15 years and unknown), alcohol consumption (frequency during past two weeks: none, one to four, at least five, total abstainer and unknown), smoking status (never, former, current or unknown), occupational activity (mostly sedentary, much walking, much walking and lifting or heavy physical work); dinactive participants served as the reference group.