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Table 3 Adjusted HRs of all-cause and CVD-related deaths related to physical activity and MetS status among people younger than 65 years olda

From: Even low level of physical activity is associated with reduced mortality among people with metabolic syndrome, a population based study (the HUNT 2 study, Norway)

  Physical activity index
Mortality High Moderate Low Inactive
Total deaths     
Without MetS     
   Deaths 193 200 265 83
   Person-years 134,119 99,214 112,980 22,046
   HR (95% CI) 1.0 (reference value)b 1.02 (0.84 to 1.25) 1.08 (0.89 to 1.30) 1.54 (1.18 to 2.00)
With MetS     
   Deaths 73 114 203 70
   Person-years 28,119 30,399 41,723 9,357
   HR (95% CI) 1.13 (0.87 to 1.49) 1.26 (0.99 to 1.59) 1.56 (1.28 to 1.92) 2.13 (1.61 to 2.83)
CVD-related deaths     
Without MetS     
   Deaths 31 41 48 17
   Person-years 134,119 99,214 112,980 22,046
   HR (95% CI) 1.0 (reference value)b 1.29 (0.81 to 2.07) 1.18 (0.74 to 1.87) 1.76 (0.97 to 3.22)
With MetS     
   Deaths 17 26 61 15
   Person-years 28,119 30,399 41,723 9,357
   HR (95% CI) 1.51 (0.83 to 2.73) 1.63 (0.96 to 2.77) 2.75 (1.76 to 4.30) 2.55 (1.35 to 4.79)
  1. aMetS, metabolic syndrome; HR, hazard ratio; CI, confidence interval; MetS, metabolic syndrome; CVD, cardiovascular disease; bparticipants who reported high physical activity levels and did not have metabolic syndrome served as the reference group. HRs are adjusted for age (continuous), sex (men and women), marital status (married or unmarried, widow or widower, divorced or separated), education level attained (≤10 years, 11 to 14 years, ≥15 years or unknown), alcohol consumption (frequency during past two weeks: none, one to four, at least five, total abstainer or unknown), smoking status (never, former, current or unknown), occupational activity (mostly sedentary, much walking, much walking and lifting or heavy physical work).