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Table 2 Description of included 2-hour response randomized trials

From: A systematic review on the effect of sweeteners on glycemic response and clinically relevant outcomes

Author,
Year,
Country
Population,
Mean BMI (kg/m2)
Sweetener 1:
Type,
Quantity
Sweetener 2:
Type,
Quantity
Medium Study design,
Follow-up,
Sample size
Mean age (y),
% female
Allocation concealment,
Jadad score,
Funding
Non-caloric vs Saccharide
Gonzalez-Ortiz [24]
2009
Mexico
General
23
Sucralose (Enterex Diabetic®)
45% once
Mixtureb
(Glucerna SR®)
50% once
Drink xRCT
2 1d periods
(3d wo)
14
22
64
Unclear
2
-
Prat-Larquemin [22]
2000
France
General
20
Aspartame
0.27 g once
Sucrose
90 g once
Cheese xRCT
2 1d periods
(1wk wo)
24
23
0
Unclear
3
Mixede
Melchior [23]
1991
France
General
21
Aspartame
80mg once
Sucrose
50 g once
Drink xRCT
2 1d periods
10
22
70
Unclear
1
Public
Non-caloric vs Non-caloric
Horwitz [25]
1988
US
55% General/45% DM2
< 25
Aspartame
400 mg once
Saccharin
135 mg once
Unsweetened drink xRCT
2 1d periods
(1wk wo)
22
41
77
Unclear
1
Private
Sugar Alcohol vs Saccharide
Rizkalla [28]
2002
France
50% General
25
50% DM2
27
Lycasin
50 g once
Glucose
50 g once
None xRCT
2 1d periods
(1wk wo)
12
40
0
Unclear
2
Private
Nguyen [26]
1993
France
General
-
Lycasin
20 g once
Sorbitol
20 g once
Xylitol
20 g once
Maltitol
20 g once
Glucose
20 g once
None xRCT
5 1d periods
(1wk wo)
10
33
50
Unclear
1
Private
Wheeler [29]
1990
US
33% General
24f
33% DM2
32
33% DM1
23
HSH6075
50 g once
HSH5875
50 g once
Glucose
50 g once
None xRCT
3 1d periods
18
47
50
Unclear
2
Mixed
Hassinger [27]
1981
Germany
DM1
-
Xylitol
30 g once
Sucrose
30 g once
Meal xRCT
2 1d periods
14
29
-
Unclear
1
Private
Saccharide vs Saccharide
Maki [30]
2009
US
Obese
35
Trehalose
75 g once
Trehalose/Fructose
75 g once
Glucose
75 g once
None xRCT
3 1d periods
21
50
0
Unclear
3
Private
Teff [31]
2009
US
Obese
35
Fructose
30%
Glucose
30%
Meals & Drinks xRCT
2 2d periods
(1mo wo)
17
33
47
Unclear
1
Public
Van Can [52]
2009
Netherlands
Overweight
28
Isomaltulose
75 g once
Sucrose
75 g once
None xRCT
2 1d periods
(1wk wo)
10
31
20
Unclear
1
Private
Grysman [58] A
2008
Canada
General
24
Sucromalt
50 g once
HFCS42
50 g once
None xRCT
2 1d periods
10
28
30
Unclear
2
Private
Grysman [58] B
2008
Canada
General
24
Sucromalt
80 g once
HFCS42
80 g once
None xRCT
2 1d periods
10
25
50
Unclear
2
Private
Grysman [58] C
2008
Canada
General
24
Sucromalt
50 g once
HFCS42
50 g once
Glucose
50 g once
Meal xRCT
3 1d periods
20
37
60
Unclear
2
Private
Munstedt [59]
2008
Germany
General
23
Glucose/Fructosea
155 g once
Honey
221 g once
None xRCT
2 1d periods (1wk wo)
10
28
0
Unclear
2
-
Stanhope [54]
2008
US
General
25
HFCS55
25% thrice
Sucrose
25% thrice
3 Meals xRCT
2 1d periods (1mo wo)
34
35
47
Unclear
1
Mixed
Bowen [32]
2007
Australia
Overweight/
Obese
33
Fructose
50 g once
Glucose
50 g once
Drink xRCT
2 1d periods
(7d wo)
28
57
0
Unclear
4
Mixed
Chong [33]
2007
UK
General
25
Fructose
0.75 g/kg once
Glucose
0.75 g/kg once
Drink xRCT
2 1d periods
(6wk wo)
14
43
43
Unclear
1
Mixed
Melanson [55]
2007
US
General
22
HFCS55
30% TID
Sucrose
30% TID
3 Meals xRCT
2 2d periods
(6wk wo)
30
33
100
Unclear
2
Private
Visvanathan [34]
2005
Australia
General
26
Sucrose
50 g once
Fructose
50 g once
Glucose
50 g once
None xRCT
3 1d periods
(3d wo)
10
72
60
Unclear
1
Public
Teff [35]
2004
US
General
23
Fructose
30% TID
Glucose
30% TID
3 Meals xRCT
2 2d periods
(1mo wo)
12
25
100
Unclear
1
Mixed
Qin [53]
2003
Japan
General
23
Maltose
75 g QIDx4h
Sucrose
75 g QIDx4h
None xRCT
2 1d periods
(1wk wo)
10
22
0
Unclear
1
-
Vozzo [36]
2002
Australia
50% IGT/50% DM2
31
Fructose
75 g once
Glucose
75 g once
None xRCT
2 1d periods
(5d wo)
20
56
40
Unclear
1
Mixed
Spiller [37]
1998
US
General
-
Sucrose
90 g once
Glucose
90 g once
None xRCT
2 1d periods
(1wk wo)
10
29
50
Unclear
1
Private
Stewart [38]
1997
Canada
General
20-27
Fructose
30 g SID
Glucose
33.5 g SID
Meal xRCT
2 1d periods
13
25
0
Unclear
1
Private
Blaak [39]
1996
Netherlands
General
-
Sucrose
75 g once
Fructose
75 g once
Glucose
75 g once
None xRCT
3 1d periods
(1wk wo)
10
28
0
Unclear
1
Mixed
Fukagawa [40]
1995
US
General
-
Fructose
75 g onced
Glucose
75 g once
None xRCT
2 1d periods
16
47
38
Unclear
1
Public
Schwarz [41]
1992
Switzerland
43% General
21
57% Overweight
30
Fructose
75 g once
Glucose
75 g once
Meal xRCT
2 1d periods
(4d wo)
23
25
100
Unclear
1
Mixed
Bukar [42]
1990
US
DM2
-
HFCS
27 g (12.2 g Fructose/14.8 g Glucose) once
Sucrose
33.5 g once
Glucose
50 g once
HFCS: Tofu frozen dessert
Sucrose: Ice cream
Glucose: None
xRCT
3 1d periods
(2d wo)
12
51
50
Unclear
1
-
Georgakopoulos [43]
1990
Greece
General
-
Sucrose
20 g once
Glucose
20 g once
None xRCT
2 1d periods
(3d wo)
17
Range 25-40
29
Unclear
1
-
Kawai [56]
1989
Japan
50% General
20
50% DM2
23
Isomaltulose
50 g once
Sucrose
50 g once
None xRCT
2 1d periods
(2d wo)
20
39
30
Unclear
1
Mixed
Schwarz [44]
1989
Switzerland
General
21
Fructose
75 g once
Glucose
75 g once
Drink xRCT
2 1d periods
(4d wo)
20
23
50
Unclear
1
Private
Simonson [45]
1988
Switzerland
DM2/General/Obesef
-
Fructose
75 g once
Glucose
75 g once
None xRCT
2 1d periods
(1wk wo)
37
53
51
Unclear
1
Mixed
Jansen [46]
1987
Netherlands
General
-
Fructose
75 g once
Glucose
75 g once
None xRCT
2 1d periods
(1wk wo)
20
52
50
Unclear
1
Public
Tappy [47]
1986
Switzerland
General
-
Fructose
75 g once
Glucose
75 g once
None xRCT
2 1d periods
(2d wo)
10
27c
65c
Unclear
1
Mixed
Erkelens [57]
1985
Netherlands
33% Generalf/33% DM2/17% DM1/17% insulin infusion DM1
-
Honey
(22% Glucose/26% Fructose) SID
Sucrose
49% SID
White bread & Cheese xRCT
2 1d periods
(2d wo)
24
47
46
Unclear
1
Mixed
Samanta [48]
1985
UK
46% General/31% DM1/23% DM2
-
Honey
26 g once
Sucrose
26 g once
Glucose
26 g once
None xRCT
3 1d periods
26
40
-
Unclear
1
-
Bantle [49]
1983
US
31% General/38% DM1/31% DM2
-
Sucrose
42 g once
Fructose
42 g once
Glucose
42 g once
Meal xRCT
3 1d periods
32
41
56
Unclear
2
Mixed
Crapo [50]
1982
US
38% General/23% IGTf/38% DM2
-
Sucrose
63 g once
Sucrose
52 g once
Fructose
63 g once
Fructose
52 g once
Glucose
69.9 g once
Sucrose & Fructose 63 g: cake
Sucrose & Fructose 52 g: ice cream
None
xRCT
5 1d periods
(1d wo)
26
43
42
Unclear
1
Mixed
Mann [51]
1971
South Africa
General
-
Sucrose
60 g once
Glucose
60 g once
Meal xRCT
2 1d periods
(2d wo)
19
Range 20-58
0
Unclear
1
Public
  1. DM1, type 1 diabetes mellitus; DM2, type 2 diabetes mellitus; IGT, impaired glucose tolerance; UK, United Kingdom; US, United States; HFCS, high fructose corn syrup; FOS, fructooligosaccharide; SID, once a day; BID, twice a day; TID, three times a day; QID, four times a day; carb, carbohydrate; xRCT, randomized crossover trial; RCT, parallel randomized controlled trial; wo, washout; max, maximum "-" means the value was not reported in the study, and not described
  2. a'comparable Honey'
  3. bcontains isomaltulose, fructose, Sucromalt® (sucrose, maltose), and FOS
  4. capproximate because it includes 7 people from other studies written up in the same article
  5. dfactorial trial including 300 mg caffeine or 300 mg vitamin C
  6. eboth public and private sources of funding
  7. fgroup of participants dropped due to low group sample size