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Table 4 Characteristics of included randomized trials with effects on weight management, blood glucose and blood lipids

From: A systematic review on the effect of sweeteners on glycemic response and clinically relevant outcomes

Author,
Year,
Country
Population,
Mean BMI (kg/m2)
Sweetener 1:
Type,
Quantity (g/d)
Sweetener 2:
Type,
Quantity (g/d)
Daily Diet
(carbohydrate/
fat/protein)
Study design,
Follow-up,
Sample size
Mean age (y),
% female
Allocation concealment,
Jadad score,
Funding
Non-caloric versus Saccharide
Reid [61]
2007
UK
General
23
Aspartame
3.56
Sucrose
42
Ad lib RCT
4 wk
133
32
100
Unclear
1
Public
Raben [63]
2002
Denmark
Overweight
28
Aspartame/Acesulfame/
Cyclamate/Saccharin
0.48-0.67
Sucrose
125-175
Ad lib RCT
10 wk
41
35
85
Unclear
1
Mixeda
Chantelau [62]
1985
Germany
DM1
< 25
Cyclamate
348 mg
Sucrose
24
Restricted to no other
added sweeteners however sucrose-sweetened soft drinks were discouraged
xRCT
2 4wk periods
10
Range 25-43
80
Unclear
1
-
Saccharide versus Saccharide
Okuno [68]
2010
Japan
General
23
Isomaltulose/
Sucrose
40
Sucrose
40
Ad lib RCT
12 wk
50
53
80
Unclear
2
Private
Tudor Ngo Sock [64]
2010
Netherlands
General
19-25
Fructose
3.5 g/kg FFM
Glucose
3.5 g/kg FFM
Total and distribution of energy restricted
55/30/15%
xRCT
2 1wk periods
(2-3wk wo)
11
25
0
Unclear
1
Mixed
Yaghoobi [69]
2008
Iran
Overweight/
Obese
31
Honey
70
Sucrose
70
Ad lib RCT
Max 30d
55
42
56
Unclear
1
Public
Boesch [70]
2001
Switzerland
General
< 25
Tagatose
45
Sucrose
45
Ad lib xRCT
2 28d periods
(28d wo)
12
Range 21-30
0
Inadequate
2
-
Bantle [65]
2000
US
General
25
Fructose
80
(incl 17 g glucose)
Glucose
80
(incl 15 g fructose)
Total and distribution of energy restricted
55/30/15%
xRCT
2 42d periods
24
41
50
Unclear
1
Public
Luo [71]
2000
Belgium
DM2
28
FOS
20
Sucrose
20
Ad lib xRCT
2 4wk periods
(2wk wo)
10
57
40
Unclear
1
Private
Alles [73]
1999
Netherlands
DM2
28
FOS
Saccharide
30
Glucose
Saccharide
8
Ad lib xRCT
2 20d periods
20
59
55
Unclear
1
Mixed
Luo [72]
1996
France
General
21
FOS
20
Sucrose
20
Low-fiber diet
recommended
xRCT
2 4wk periods
(2wk wo)
12
24
0
Unclear
2
Private
Bantle [67]
1986
US
50% DM1/50% DM2
-
Sucrose
23%
Fructose
21%
Total and distribution of energy restricted
55/30/15%
xRCT
2 8d periods
24
43
54
Unclear
1
Mixed
Macdonald [66]
1973
UK
General
-
Sucrose
6.5 g/kg
Glucose
6.5 g/kg
Restricted to
1 g/kg calcium
caseinate
xRCT
2 11d periods
(2wk wo)
10
Range 20-25
40
Unclear
1
Private
  1. UK, United Kingdom; US, United States; DM1, type 1 diabetes mellitus; DM2, type 2 diabetes mellitus; HFCS, high fructose corn syrup; FOS, fructooligosaccharide; FFM, fat free mas;, xRCT, controlled crossover trial; RCT, parallel randomized controlled trial; wo, washout; max, maximum; "-" means the value was not reported in the study
  2. aBoth public and private sources of funding