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Table 2 Comparison of the initial and final values of the variables under study in the two groups

From: Regular consumption of vitamin D-fortified yogurt drink (Doogh) improved endothelial biomarkers in subjects with type 2 diabetes: a randomized double-blind clinical trial

Group PYD FYD   
Variable Before After P i Before After P i P ii P iii
Weight 78.1 ± 13.0 78.8 ± 13.2 0.058 77.6 ± 13.1 77.0 ± 12.8 0.003 0.83 0.49
Waist (cm) 101.34 ± 9.1 102.5 ± 9.2 0.035 98.25 ± 9.2 97.5 ± 8.8 0.013 0.090 0.007
BMI (kg/m 2 ) 30.0 ± 4.2 30.2 ± 4.3 0.079 28.6 ± 4.0 28.4 ± 4.0 0.005 0.09 0.03
Fat mass (%) 38.6 ± 9.6 39.8 ± 9.5 0.019 36.2 ± 8.8 34.7 ± 9.4 0.22 0.22 0.01
SBP (mm Hg) 128.2 ± 16.6 125.7 ± 6.9 0.22 125.7 ± 14.4 118.5 ± 21.0 0.007 0.42 0.056
DBP (mm Hg) 77.8 ± 10.8 77.0 ± 9.3 0.62 78.5 ± 10.3 73.4 ± 8.5 0.002 0.42 0.02
FSG (mmol/L) 9.6 ± 2.6 10.0 ± 3.2 0.32 10.5 ± 3.1 9.0 ± 2.8 0.001 0.13 0.10
Insulin(pmol/L) 177.8 ± 80.6 204.2 ± 90.3 0.01 141.0 ± 113.2 111.0 ± 82.0 0.002 0.06 0.001
HbA1c (%) 8.9 ± 1.6 8.5 ± 1.6 0.087 8.7 ± 1.8 7.8 ± 1.3 0.001 0.10 0.015
QUICKI 0.28 ± 0.02 0.27 ± 0.02 0.041 0.29 ± 0.02 0.30 ± 0.02 0.001 0.03 0.001
TG (mmol/L) 10.1 ± 4.8 10.1 ± 5.2 0.98 10.3 ± 5.3 8.6 ± 4.5 0.01 0.86 0.001
HDL-C (mmol/L) 2.5 ± 0.5 2.4 ± 0.5 0.52 2.6 ± .46 2.8 ± .42 0.043 0.15 0.001
TC (mmol/L) 10.1 ± 2.7 10.0 ± 3.0 0.68 10.3 ± 3.1 9.2 ± 1.8 0.001 0.68 0.10
LDL-C (mmol/L) 6.15 ± 1.8 6.1 ± 1.8 0.52 5.5 ± 1.7 5.0 ± 1.3 0.003 0.12 0.001
25(OH)D (nmol/L) 38.0 ± 22.8 33.4 ± 22.8 0.28 38.5 ± 20.2 72.0 ± 23.5 0.001 0.90 0.001
iPTH (ng/L) 55.0 ± 22.5 59.1 ± 18.2 0.28 52.5 ± 24.1 40.1 ± 15.6 0.001 0.12 0.001
ACR (mg/mmol) 41.8 ± 106.2 44.1 ± 158.2 0.88 36.2 ± 99.4 31.6 ± 68.9 0.61 0.74 0.40
Endothelin (μg/L) 0.80 ± 0.40 0.88 ± 0.41 0.67 0.9 5 ± 0.38 0.75 ± 0.64 0.001 0.50 0.06
E-selectin (μg/L) 16.1 ± 6.5 17.1 ± 6.9 0.42 18.1 ± 7.1 14.4 ± 5.7 0.001 0.14 0.035
MMP-9 (μg/L) 9.2 ± 5.3 9.6 ± 4.7 0.66 10.6 ± 4.2 8.3 ± 3.7 0.001 0.15 0.12
  1. Data presented as mean ± standard deviation or percentage unless stated otherwise.
  2. P i: within group difference; P ii: between-group at the baseline; P iii: between group after the intervention
  3. FYD: vitamin D-fortified doogh; PYD: plain doogh