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Table 3 Comparison of changes in biomarkers during treatment with FYD or PYD

From: Regular consumption of vitamin D-fortified yogurt drink (Doogh) improved endothelial biomarkers in subjects with type 2 diabetes: a randomized double-blind clinical trial

  Change in FYD group
(n = 50)
Change in PYD group (n = 50) P a
Waist (cm) -0.75 ± 2.8 +1.1 ± 3.6 0.005
BMI (kg/m2) -0.17 ± 1.4 +0.25 ± 0.9 0.07
Fat mass (%) +1.1 ± 3.0 -1.0 ± 5.3 0.23
Systolic BP (mm Hg) -7.3 ± 18.5 -2.5 ± 14.6 0.15
Diastolic BP (mm Hg) -3.5 ± 7.8 -0.63 ± 9.3 0.09
FSG (mg/dL) -26.6 ± 45.6 +6.2 ± 44.8 < 0.0001
Fasting serum insulin (mU/L) -4.3 ± 9.6 +3.8 ± 10.3 < 0.0001
HbA1c (%) -0.9 ± 1.4 -0.4 ± 1.7 0.10
Quiccki index +0.01 ± 0.02 -0.005 ± 0.02 < 0.0001
TG (mg/dL) -30.3 ± 81.3 +0.12 ± 36.8 0.01
HDL-C (mg/dL) +2.4 ± 8.3 -0.6 ± 6.7 0.04
TC (mg/dL) -19.4 ± 34.8 -1.8 ± 31.7 0.009
LDL-C (mg/dL) -10.7 ± 24.2 -1.5 ± 16.9 0.02
25(OH)D (nmol/L) +32.6 ± 18.3 -2.7 ± 16.6 < 0.0001
iPTH (pg/ml) -11.7 ± 20.6 4.3 ± 58.3 0.07
Microalbumin (mg/dl) -6.3 ± 51.6 0.89 ± 24.8 0.38
Endothelin (ng/mL) 0.03 ± 0.55 0.35 ± 0.63 0.028
E-selectin (ng/mL) -3.8 ± 7.3 +0.95 ± 8.3 0.003
MMP-9 (ng/mL) -2.3 ± 3.7 +0.44 ± 7.1 0.02
  1. Data are presented as ± standard deviation
  2. aDifferences assessed by Student's t-test
  3. FYD, fortified yogurt drink; PYD, plain yogurt drink; BMI indicates body mass index; BP, blood pressure; FSG, fasting serum glucose; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; TG, triglyceride; HDL-c high density lipoprotein; TC, total cholesterol; LDL-C, low density cholesterol; 25-OHD,25-hydroxyvitamin D; iPTH, intact parathyroid hormone; MMP-9, matrix metalloproteinase 9.