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Table 1 Characteristics of study populations

From: Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

  Japanese living in Nagano, Japan Japanese Brazilians living in São Paulo, Brazil Non-Japanese Brazilians living in São Paulo, Brazil Pfor difference
Number of participants 185 44 134  
Mean age (±SE), yr 62.8 (0.40) 63.8 (0.82) 63.6 (0.47) 0.37
P a 0.31 Reference 0.84  
Family history of breast cancer, n (%) 17 (9.2) 5 (11.4) 14 (10.5) 0.92
P a 0.68 Reference 0.98  
History of benign breast disease, n (%) 11 (6.0) 4 (9.1) 8 (6.0) 0.46
P a 0.65 Reference 0.62  
Mean age at first menarche (±SE), yr 13.9 (0.12) 13.2 (0.26) 13.3 (0.15) <0.01
P a <0.01 Reference 0.75  
Mean age at menopause (±SE), yr 50.0 (0.34) 50.8 (0.69) 48.2 (0.40) <0.01
P a 0.29 Reference <0.01  
Nulliparous, n (%) 17 (9.2) 5 (11.4) 15 (11.2) 0.55
P a 0.58 Reference 0.81  
Number of births (more than four births), n (%)b 6 (3.6) 12 (30.8) 57 (47.9) <0.01
P a <0.01 Reference <0.01  
Mean age at first birth (±SE), yrb 26.2 (0.34) 26.5 (0.72) 23.6 (0.41) <0.01
P a 0.65 Reference <0.01  
Breast feeding (yes), n (%)b 154 (93.3) 35 (89.7) 107 (89.9) 0.72
P a 0.27 Reference 0.61  
Mean height (±SE), cm 152.9 (0.43) 151.8 (0.89) 157.1 (0.52) <0.01
P a 0.29 Reference <0.01  
Mean body mass index (±SE), kg/m2 23.4 (0.28) 24.7 (0.57) 27.0 (0.34) <0.01
P a 0.04 Reference <0.01  
Smoking (ever smoker), n (%) 6 (3.3) 7 (15.9) 38 (28.4) <0.01
P a <0.01 Reference <0.01  
Alcohol drinking (drinker), n (%) 67 (36.2) 5 (11.4) 25 (18.7) <0.01
P a <0.01 Reference 0.63  
Physical activity in past 5 years (yes), n (%) 85 (46.5) 19 (43.2) 26 (19.4) <0.01
P a <0.01 Reference <0.01  
  1. a P values for comparison with Japanese Brazilians living in São Paulo, Brazil; bAmong parous women only.