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Table 2 Adjusted geometric mean hormone levels in three populationsa

From: Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

  Japanese living in Nagano, Japan Japanese Brazilians living in São Paulo, Brazil Non-Japanese Brazilians living in São Paulo, Brazil Pfor difference
Estradiol, pg/mL     
   Age-adjusted 9.0 13.8 15.5 <0.01
   (95% CI) (8.6 to 9.4) (12.5 to 15.3) (14.6 to 16.5)  
   P a <0.01 Reference 0.052  
   Multivariateb 9.7 14.3 15.5 <0.01
   (95% CI) (8.7 to 10.9) (12.5 to 16.4) (14.0 to 17.1)  
   P a <0.01 Reference 0.28  
Bioavailable estradiol, %     
   Age-adjusted 23.1 30.6 22.9 <0.01
   (95% CI) (22.1 to 24.1) (28.0 to 33.4) (21.7 to 24.1)  
   P a <0.01 Reference <0.01  
   Multivariateb 23.7 30.2 20.6 <0.01
   (95% CI) (21.6 to 26.0) (27.0 to 33.8) (19.0 to 22.3)  
   P a <0.01 Reference <0.01  
Estrone, pg/mL     
   Age-adjusted 23.0 40.3 34.1 <0.01
   (95% CI) (22.0 to 24.0) (36.8 to 44.1) (32.4 to 35.9)  
   P a <0.01 Reference <0.01  
   Multivariateb 23.8 41.1 33.3 <0.01
   (95% CI) (21.5 to 26.3) (36.5 to 46.3) (30.6 to 36.4)  
   P a <0.01 Reference <0.01  
Sex hormone-binding globulin, nM/L     
   Age-adjusted 74.1 54.3 60.2 <0.01
   (95% CI) (69.4 to 79.1) (47.5 to 62.0) (55.8 to 65.1)  
   P a <0.01 Reference 0.18  
   Multivariateb 68.4 53.0 70.7 0.01
   (95% CI) (59.5 to 78.5) (44.9 to 62.4) (62.6 to 79.7)  
   P a <0.01 Reference <0.01  
Androstenedione, ng/mL     
   Age-adjusted 0.65 0.56 1.04 <0.01
   (95% CI) (0.60 to 0.70) (0.47 to 0.66) (0.95 to 1.15)  
   P a 0.12 Reference <0.01  
   Multivariateb 0.73 0.60 1.00 <0.01
   (95% CI) (0.61 to 0.88) (0.48 to 0.76) (0.85 to 1.18)  
   P a 0.06 Reference <0.01  
DHEAS, μg/dL     
   Age-adjusted 50.6 58.0 44.5 0.03
   (95% CI) (46.3 to 55.4) (48.2 to 69.8) (40.0 to 49.4)  
   P a 0.19 Reference 0.01  
   Multivariateb 57.2 63.1 46.7 0.04
   (95% CI) (46.6 to 70.2) (49.4 to 80.6) (39.2 to 55.8)  
   P a 0.38 Reference 0.02  
Testosterone, ng/mL     
   Age-adjusted 0.02 0.11 0.18 <0.01
   (95% CI) (0.02 to 0.03) (0.07 to 0.17) (0.14 to 0.24)  
   P a <0.01 Reference 0.06  
   Multivariateb 0.03 0.10 0.14 <0.01
   (95% CI) (0.02 to 0.04) (0.06 to 0.20) (0.09 to 0.22)  
   P a <0.01 Reference 0.38  
Free testosterone, pg/mL     
   Age-adjusted 0.21 0.39 0.44 <0.01
   (95% CI) (0.19 to 0.23) (0.33 to 0.46) (0.40 to 0.48)  
   P a <0.01 Reference 0.18  
   Multivariateb 0.22 0.39 0.39 <0.01
   (95% CI) (0.19 to 0.26) (0.32 to 0.47) (0.34 to 0.45)  
   P a <0.01 Reference 0.92  
  1. DHEAS, dehyroepianrosterone sulfate; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; a P values for comparison with Japanese Brazilians living in São Paulo, Brazil; bAdjusted for age (continuous), age at first menarche (continuous), age at menopause (continuous), number of births (0, 1, 2 or 3, 4+), age at first birth (≤22, 23 to 26, ≥27 yr, nulliparous), height (continuous), body mass index (continuous), smoking (never smokers, past smokers, current smokers), alcohol drinking (nondrinkers, occasional drinker, regular drinkers), and physical activity in past 5 years (no, ≤2 days/wk, ≥3 days/wk).