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Table 4 Adjusted geometric mean hormone levels by breast cancer risk factors and lifestyle-factorsa

From: Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

Breast cancer risk and lifestyle factors Participants, n Estradiol, pg/mL Bioavailable estradiol, % Estrone, pg/mL Sex hormone- binding globulin, nM/L Androstenedione, ng/mL DHEAS, μg/dL Testosterone, ng/mL Free testosterone, pg/mL
Family history of breast cancer          
   No 327 13.9 22.7 32.6 66.2 0.84 52.7 0.09 0.34
   Yes 36 13.8 21.2 31.6 74.6 0.80 51.4 0.05 0.36
   P for difference   0.90 0.18 0.57 0.12 0.66 0.83 0.08 0.40
History of benign breast disease          
   No 339 13.9 22.6 32.5 66.9 0.84 52.9 0.09 0.34
   Yes 23 14.3 22.0 33.5 69.0 0.78 52.1 0.08 0.31
   P for difference   0.69 0.68 0.67 0.75 0.61 0.92 0.72 0.38
Age at first menarche, yr          
   <12 101 13.7 22.9 31.6 66.7 0.83 49.5 0.08 0.33
   13 or 14 166 13.9 22.2 32.4 65.2 0.83 54.8 0.09 0.34
   15+ 96 13.9 22.6 33.6 69.7 0.85 53.3 0.08 0.35
   P for trend   0.81 0.81 0.18 0.51 0.78 0.43 0.99 0.60
   P for trendb   0.70 0.47 0.30 0.24 0.68 0.29 0.83 0.39
Age at menopause, yr          
   <48 116 14.0 23.0 32.6 64.5 0.89 57.0 0.08 0.34
   49 to 51 108 14.0 22.0 33.1 70.2 0.78 51.6 0.09 0.34
   52+ 139 13.6 22.5 32.1 67.0 0.80 48.5 0.09 0.33
   P for trend   0.47 0.65 0.68 0.57 0.20 0.05 0.66 0.75
   P for trendb   0.80 0.06 0.93 0.02 0.32 0.51 0.59 1.00
Parity          
   Parous 326 13.8 22.0 32.3 67.5 0.80 48.4 0.08 0.33
   Nulliparous 37 13.7 23.3 32.9 67.2 0.87 58.0 0.10 0.34
   P for difference   0.89 0.28 0.73 0.95 0.42 0.11 0.51 0.86
Number of birthsc          
   1 32 13.7 20.6 32.8 69.6 0.77 43.7 0.10 0.30
   2 or 3 219 13.4 22.2 31.6 67.8 0.79 43.9 0.08 0.32
   4+ 75 14.7 22.3 33.2 65.8 0.86 56.0 0.08 0.35
   P for trend   0.27 0.26 0.71 0.55 0.38 0.046 0.76 0.20
Age at first birthc, yr          
   <22 79 13.2 21.3 31.5 70.9 0.80 44.0 0.09 0.31
   23 to 26.9 138 13.9 21.5 33.1 68.1 0.78 46.7 0.07 0.33
   27+ 109 14.7 22.3 33.1 64.3 0.84 52.2 0.10 0.32
   P for trend   0.09 0.29 0.52 0.16 0.47 0.11 0.40 0.89
   P for trendb   0.10 0.32 0.53 0.37 0.58 0.39 0.47 0.81
Breast-feedingc          
   No 27 14.3 23.2 33.5 63.4 0.82 46.9 0.09 0.33
   Yes 296 13.7 21.9 32.2 67.6 0.81 47.2 0.08 0.32
   P for difference   0.59 0.33 0.53 0.47 0.87 0.96 0.85 0.87
Height, cm          
   <150.9 107 13.8 22.3 32.2 69.4 0.84 54.7 0.09 0.34
   151 to 156.9 126 14.3 22.1 33.4 67.2 0.81 51.9 0.08 0.34
   157+ 124 13.7 23.2 32.2 63.8 0.85 51.7 0.09 0.34
   P for trend   0.83 0.31 0.99 0.16 0.91 0.54 0.71 0.86
   P for trendb   0.62 0.07 0.65 0.01 0.33 0.96 0.47 0.72
BMI, kg/m2          
   <24.9 199 13.3 20.9 31.1 75.3 0.77 51.1 0.07 0.30
   25 to 29.9 116 14.5 24.2 32.2 60.2 0.79 48.4 0.09 0.34
   30+ 40 15.5 26.4 38.4 51.2 1.15 65.3 0.16 0.50
   P for trend   0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.01 0.21 0.01 <0.01
   P for trendb   <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.13 0.01 <0.01
Smoking          
   Never smoker 310 13.2 24.3 32.0 62.9 0.80 53.5 0.09 0.35
   Past smoker 37 13.6 23.7 32.4 62.3 0.77 51.4 0.06 0.38
   Current smoker 14 14.9 20.0 33.2 76.3 0.94 52.8 0.12 0.29
   P for difference   0.48 0.06 0.91 0.28 0.55 0.95 0.43 0.28
Alcohol drinking          
   Nondrinker 266 14.0 22.0 32.7 69.9 0.85 49.4 0.10 0.34
   Occasional drinker 39 14.1 23.5 32.4 63.7 0.82 59.1 0.08 0.34
   Regular drinker 58 13.5 22.2 32.4 67.1 0.83 49.8 0.08 0.34
   P for difference   0.76 0.48 0.97 0.42 0.89 0.29 0.48 0.98
Physical activity in past 5 years          
   No 231 14.0 22.5 32.8 66.7 0.84 52.2 0.11 0.34
   ≤2 days/wk 63 13.8 22.1 32.1 67.5 0.79 50.6 0.05 0.33
   ≥3 days/wk 68 13.5 23.3 32.1 66.8 0.85 55.8 0.07 0.35
   P for trend   0.46 0.48 0.58 0.95 0.97 0.56 0.02 0.60
  1. DHEAS, dehyroepianrosterone sulfate; BMI, body mass index; aAdjusted for age (continuous), ethnic group (Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, non-Japanese Brazilians (Caucasian, mixed, Black), age at first menarche (continuous), age at menopause (continuous), number of births (0, 1, 2 or 3, 4+), age at first birth (≤22, 23 to 26, ≥27 yr, nulliparous), height (continuous), BMI (continuous), smoking (never smokers, past smokers, current smokers), alcohol drinking (nondrinkers, occasional drinkers, regular drinkers) and physical activity in the past 5 years (no, ≤2 days/wk, ≥3 days/wk); bContinuous variables; cAmong parous women only.