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Table 1 Distribution of participants by age and risk groupa

From: EEG complexity as a biomarker for autism spectrum disorder risk

  Age
  6 months 9 months 12 months 18 months 24 months
Parameter HRA CON HRA CON HRA CON HRA CON HRA CON
Number of infants 14 16 16 12 23 17 15 7 14 9
Males, n = 59 6 6 8 4 10 6 8 3 4 4
Females, n = 84 8 10 8 8 13 11 7 4 10 5
Total, N = 143 30 28 40 22 23
Demographic information
   Mean age, days 189 185 272 273 366 362 549 541 725 727
   SD 11.7 8.6 5.1 3.6 9.4 9.0 12.4 6.2 9.1 12.4
   Mean height, in 26.5 26.1 27.8 27.2 29.8 29.5 32.1 32.1 34.1 34.8
   SD 1.9 1.0 0.7 1.6 1.0 1.5 1.7 1.2 1.1 1.2
   P value 0.46 0.18 0.53 0.97 0.24
   Mean head circumference, mm 434 435 459 447 465 466 484 481 492 493
   SD 12.7 12.2 13.7 15.8 12.5 18.0 11.4 18.8 16.7 17.2
   P value 0.93 0.04 0.87 0.61 0.53
mMSE over channel groups
   Total mMSE 2.02 1.93 2.07 2.02 2.05 1.87 2.16 1.97 2.07 1.96
   SD 0.15 0.21 0.20 0.36 0.20 0.35 0.22 0.10 0.14 0.15
   P value 0.17 0.71 0.07 0.01 0.13
   Frontal mMSE 2.02 1.93 2.12 2.08 2.10 1.94 2.18 2.01 2.08 2.00
   SD 0.15 0.21 0.20 0.36 0.20 0.35 0.22 0.12 0.11 0.13
   P value 0.04 0.39 0.11 0.04 0.21
   Left frontal mMSE 1.94 1.81 1.94 1.91 2.01 1.82 2.06 1.91 2.03 1.88
   SD 0.15 0.20 0.20 0.31 0.16 0.32 0.21 0.13 0.13 0.15
   P value 0.05 0.72 0.04 0.07 0.03
  1. aA total of 79 different infants (46 HRA and 33 CON) participated in this study. Some infants participated in multiple sessions at different ages, raising the total to 143 recording sessions. Also shown are measured demographic variables (age, height and head circumference) and mean multiscale entropy (mMSE) values over three regions: whole head, frontal and left frontal. Statistically significant differences between HRA and CON groups are highlighted in boldface. HRA, high risk for autism, CON, controls; SD, standard deviation.