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Table 1 Clinical and laboratory characteristics of the study subjectsa

From: Divergence of gut permeability and mucosal immune gene expression in two gluten-associated conditions: celiac disease and gluten sensitivity

Characteristics DC CD GS
Number of samples 39 42 26
Age at diagnosis, yr
(mean ± SD)
33.36 ± 10.94 26.88 ± 11.77 30.73 ± 12.19
Sex (F/M) 23/16 32/10 17/9
Intestinal symptoms Dyspepsia Chronic diarrhea
Abdominal pain
Weight fluctuation
Smelly, fatty stools
Abdominal pain
Weight loss
Extraintestinal symptoms None Bone or joint pain
Behavioral changes
Tingling leg numbness
Muscle cramps
Missed menstruation
Recurrent miscarriage
Delayed growth
Tooth discoloration
Unexplained anemia
Bone or joint pain
Leg numbness
Muscle cramps
Unexplained anemia
EMA-IgA All negative 34 positive
3 negative
5 not determined
All negative
tTG-IgA All negative 37 positive
5 negative
All negative
AGA-IgA/IgG All negative 29 positive
10 negative
3 not determined
12 positive
13 negative
1 not determined
MHC profile None determined 22 DQ2 and/or DQ8 positive
2 DQ2 and/or DQ8 negative
18 not determined
12 DQ2 and/or DQ8 positive
9 DQ2 and/or DQ8 negative
5 not determined
Wheat IgE 1 positive
37 negative
1 not determined
18 negative
24 not determined
22 negative
4 not determined
  1. aDC, dyspeptic controls; CD, celiac disease; GS, gluten-sensitive individuals; SD, standard deviation; EMA-IgA, endomysium antibodies-immunoglobulin A; tTG-IgA, tissue transglutaminase-immunoglobulin A; AGA-IgA/IgG, anti-gliadin antibodies-immunoglobulin A/immunoglobulin G; MHC, major histocompatibility complex; IgE, immunoglobulin E.