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Table 3 Demographics, social, illness and physical activity characteristics of survey population by ethnicitya

From: Chronic fatigue syndrome in an ethnically diverse population: the influence of psychosocial adversity and physical inactivity

  Sample size, n(%)
Demographic variable Total, N(%) White Irish Black Caribbean Bangladeshi Indian Pakistani Pvalue
   835 (19.5) 733 (17.1) 691 (16.1) 650 (15.2) 648 (15.1) 724 (16.9)  
Sex         
   Male 1,950 (45.5) 365 (43.7) 323 (44.1) 280 (40.5) 321 (49.4) 316 (48.8) 345 (47.7) ≤0.04
   Female 2,332 (54.5) 471 (56.1) 410 (55.9) 412 (59.5) 329 (50.6) 331 (51.2) 379 (52.3)  
Age, yr         
   16 to 34 1,774 (41.4) 260 (31.1) 209 (28.5) 269 (38.9) 376 (57.8) 248 (38.3) 412 (56.9) ≤0.001
   35 to 54 1,647 (38.5) 355 (42.5) 345 (47.1) 251 (36.3) 187 (28.7) 280 (43.2) 229 (21.6)  
   55 to 74 862 (20.1) 221 (26.4) 179 (24.4) 171 (24.7) 88 (13.5) 120 (18.5) 83 (11.5)  
Marital status         
   Married 2,674 (62.5) 518 (62.1) 461 (62.8) 279 (40.4) 446 (68.7) 464 (71.7) 506 (69.9) ≤0.001
   Divorced/separated 313 (7.3) 75 (9) 78 (10.6) 84 (12.2) 18 (2.8) 32 (4.9) 26 (3.6)  
   Widowed 142 (3.3) 36 (4.3) 25 (3.4) 18 (2.6) 28 (4.3) 19 (2.9) 16 (2.2)  
   Single 1,150 (26.9) 205 (24.6) 170 (23.2) 310 (44.9) 157 (24.2) 132 (20.4) 176 (24.3)  
Employment status         
   Employed 2,273 (55) 536 (66.4) 490 (69) 376 (57.4) 181 (29.1) 394 (61.9) 296 (42.4) ≤0.001
   Unemployed 168 (4.1) 10 (1.2) 12 (1.7) 39 (6) 40 (6.4) 33 (5.2) 34 (4.9)  
   Retired 446 (10.8) 130 (16.1) 96 (13.5) 97 (14.8) 33 (5.3) 49 (7.7) 41 (5.9)  
   Other economically inactive 1,242 (30.1) 131 (16.2) 112 (15.8) 143 (21.8) 369 (59.2) 160 (25.2) 327 (46.8)  
Educational level         
   Degree or above 951 (23.2) 213 (26.5) 195 (27.6) 172 (26) 62 (10.1) 187 (29.9) 122 (17.8) ≤0.001
   A level/GCSE 1,549 (37.8) 356 (44.3) 294 (41.6) 272 (41.1) 172 (27.9) 221 (35.3) 234 (34.1)  
   Foreign qualification 172 (4.2) 32 (4) 35 (5) 30 (4.5) 17 (2.8) 29 (4.6) 29 (4.2)  
   No qualification 1,428 (34.8) 202 (25.2) 183 (25.9) 188 (28.4) 365 (59.3) 189 (30.2) 301 (43.9)  
Social class (employment type)         
   Nonmanual labour 1,681 (41.9) 463 (56.3) 351 (48.5) 279 (42.7) 92 (16.4) 279 (44.6) 217 (34.5) ≤0.001
   Manual labour 2,335 (58.1) 360 (43.7) 372 (51.5) 375 (57.3) 469 (83.6) 347 (55.4) 412 (65.5)  
Social support scores (tertiles)         
   Confiding/emotional support         ≤0.001
Low 1,137 (27) 225 (27.1) 194 (26.8) 226 (33.5) 154 (24) 168 (26.5) 170 (24.1)  
Average 1,667 (39.6) 301 (36.3) 244 (33.7) 239 (35.4) 313 (48.8) 262 (41.4) 308 (43.7)  
High 1,404 (33.4) 303 (36.6) 287 (39.6) 210 (31.1) 174 (27.1) 203 (32.1) 227 (32.2)  
   Practical support         ≤0.001
Low 892 (21.2) 200 (24.1) 149 (20.5) 179 (26.5) 68 (10.6) 145 (22.9) 151 (21.4)  
Average 1,308 (31) 296 (35.7) 259 (35.7) 253 (37.4) 130 (20.3) 185 (29.2) 185 (26.2)  
High 2,013 (47.8) 334 (40.2) 318 (43.8) 244 (36.1) 443 (69.1) 303 (47.9) 371 (52.5)  
   Negative aspects of support         ≤0.001
Low 646 (15.4) 159 (19.2) 113 (15.6) 135 (20) 31 (4.9) 100 (15.8) 108 (15.3)  
Average 1,484 (35.3) 365 (44) 331 (45.6) 225 (33.3) 126 (19.7) 200 (31.6) 237 (33.6)  
High 2,078 (49.4) 306 (36.9) 282 (38.8) 316 (46.7) 481 (75.4) 332 (52.5) 361 (51.1)  
Chronic strain mean scoresb 1.62 1.34 1.44 1.71 2.31 1.38 1.53 ≤0.0001
Perceived discrimination mean scoresb 0.30 0.13 0.15 0.65 0.19 0.39 0.35 ≤0.0001
Days of moderate activity ≥30 minutes/day in past 4 weeks         ≤0.001
   5 or more (high) 1,131 (26.5) 268 (32.1) 231 (31.6) 228 (33.1) 93 (14.3) 170 (26.2) 141 (19.5)  
   1 to 4 (medium) 1,274 (29.8) 278 (33.3) 247 (33.7) 201 (29.2) 139 (21.4) 192 (29.6) 217 (30.1)  
   1 or <1 (low) 1,870 (43.7) 288 (34.5) 254 (34.7) 260 (37.7) 418 (64.3) 286 (44.1) 364 (50.4)  
Activity intensity         ≤0.001
   Inactive/light 903 (22) 6 (0.7) 102 (14.4) 116 (17.4) 308 (49.9) 156 (24.9) 215 (31.3)  
   Moderate/vigorous 3,201 (78) 795 (99.3) 606 (85.6) 549 (82.6) 309 (50.1) 470 (75.1) 472 (68.7)  
Anxiety mean scoresb 0.30 0.31 0.38 0.29 0.20 0.29 0.32 0.005
Depressive mean scoresb 0.43 0.41 0.41 0.42 0.36 0.46 0.51 0.003
  1. aGCSE: General Certificate of Secondary Education. bweighted mean