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Table 1 Characteristics of cost-effectiveness models (PneumoADIP, Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) TriVac, and SUPREMES)

From: Cost effectiveness of pediatric pneumococcal conjugate vaccines: a comparative assessment of decision-making tools

  PneumoADIP PAHO TriVac SUPREMES
Types of study CEA and CUA CEA and CUA CEA and CUA
Population Number of live birth of 10 cohorts (secular trend analysis) Number of births 5 years prior to start of intervention and number of live birth per year Cross-sectional analysis of entire population
Perspective Society Society and government Healthcare payera
Vaccination Pneumococcal Pneumococcal, Rotavirus, Hib Pneumococcalb
Outcomes Cost per DALY averted, cost per life year saved Cost per DALY averted, cost per life saved, cost per life year gained, cost per case averted, cost per hospitalization averted Cost per QALY gained, cost per life year gained
Time horizon 5 years 5 years Cross sectional
Diseases captured Pneumococcal pneumonia, pneumococcal meningitis, invasive NPNM, otitis media Pneumococcal pneumonia, pneumococcal meningitis, invasive NPNM Pneumococcal pneumonia, pneumococcal meningitis, pneumococcal bacteremia, otitis mediac
Herd immunity Included only in vaccine-targeted cohorts; no switch 'off' and 'on' Included only in vaccine-targeted cohorts; can be switched 'off' and 'on' Included for vaccine targeted and non-targeted population; can be switched 'off' and 'on'
Serotype replacement Does not allow an explicit consideration of serotype replacement, (allows for serotype adjustment) Allows for an explicit direct adjustment for serotype replacement over time No direct adjustment for serotype replacement over time (the individual component of replacement is included in the direct vaccine effectiveness estimate)
Sequelae Pneumococcal pneumonia, pneumococcal meningitis, invasive NPNM Pneumococcal pneumonia, pneumococcal meningitis, invasive NPNM, pneumococcal OM Pneumococcal meningitis, pneumococcal OM (can be switch 'off' and 'on')
Discounting 3% 3% No need for discounting
Sensitivity analysis NR One-way sensitivity analysisd One-way sensitivity analysise
  1. aSpecified that the model can add the societal perspective as well when including indirect cost estimates.
  2. bSpecified PCV as Synflorix™ (10-valent pneumococcal Haemophilus influenzae protein D-conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV)).
  3. cSpecified that other sensitivity analyses including a probabilistic one were under development. Currently, we can only perform one-way sensitivity analysis of some parameters (for example, discount, age weighted, perspective, vaccine price, percentage decline in price).
  4. dModel has an option to include the vaccine effect in preventing otitis media due to non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi).
  5. eModel can vary assumptions and determine its effects on results. These assumptions changes include AOM, AOM sequelae, NTHi in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), NTHi in community acquired pneumonia (CAP), herd effect, and varying vaccine coverage. The model set 20% range change under and above the baseline values for most of the variables in the model. The model specifies probabilistic sensitivity analysis to be performed with @Risk software initiating acceptability curve http://www.palisade.com/risk/.
  6. AOM = acute OM; CEA = cumulative effects analysis; CUA = cost utility analysis; DALY = disability-adjusted life years; NPNM = non-pneumonia non-meningitis; OM = otitis media; QALY = quality-adjusted life years.