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Table 1 Comparison of patients with versus without pneumonia

From: A decision aid to rule out pneumonia and reduce unnecessary prescriptions of antibiotics in primary care patients with cough and fever

Variate* All patients (n = 621) Patients without pneumonia (n = 494) Patients with pneumonia (n = 127)
Age 46.7 (SD 16.3) 46.6 (SD 16.1) 46.8 (SD 17.2)
Gender (male) 308 (50%) 247 (50%) 61 (48%)
New onset/worsened cough's duration (days) 7.0 (SD 9.6) 6.7 (SD 6.4) 8.4 (SD 17)
Chronic cough 43 (7%) 30 (6%) 13 (10%)
Daily fever 350 (56%) 266 (54%) 84 (66%)
Maximum temperature (°C) 38.5 (SD 1.0) 38.4 (SD 1.0) 38.8 (SD 1.0)
Dyspnea 223 (36%) 165 (33%) 58 (46%)
Dyspnea at effort only 117 (19%) 88 (18%) 29 (23%)
Wheezing 109 (18%) 85 (17%) 24 (19%)
Pain on inspiration 179 (29%) 133 (27%) 46 (36%)
Rigors 205 (23%) 150 (30%) 55 (43%)
Muco-purulent sputum 302 (49%) 240 (49%) 62 (49%)
Bloody sputum 42 (7%) 27 (5%) 15 (12%)
Cold/Influenza signs 301 (48%) 252 (51%) 49 (39%)
Non-Smoker 440 (71%) 349 (71%) 91 (72%)
Smoking (cigs./day) 16.4 (SD 9.1) 16.1 (SD 9.3) 17.6 (SD 8.7)
Pack years 12.7 (SD 18.2) 8.7 (SD 12.2) 25 (SD 26.7)
History of pneumonia 20 (3%) 17 (3%) 3 (2%)
Current temperature (°C) 37.4 (SD 1.0) 37.3 (SD 1.0) 37.7 (SD 1.0)
Signs of upper respiratory infection 234 (38%) 201 (46%) 33 (26%)
Respiratory rate (#/minute) 17 (SD 6) 16.6 (SD 5.7) 18.6 (SD 5.9)
Prolonged expiration 64 (10%) 48 (10%) 16 (13%)
Percussion: dullness (a) 38 (6%) 13 (3%) 25 (20%)
Auscultation: friction rub (b) 18 (3%) 7 (1%) 11 (9%)
Auscultation: diminished inspiratory sound (c) 74 (12%) 43 (9%) 31 (24%)
Auscultation: bronchial breath sound (d) 52 (8%) 28 (6%) 24 (19%)
Auscultation: rales and/or wheezing (e) 192 (31%) 144 (29%) 48 (38%)
Abnormalities in a to e, if 2+ in single locus 140 (23%) 84 (17%) 56 (44%)
Abnormalities in a to e, if 2+ in different loci 18 (3%) 10 (2%) 8 (6%)
C-reactive protein (CRP)    
   CRP 0 to 10 108 (17%) 108 (22%) 0 (0%)
   CRP 11 to 50 265 (43%) 240 (49%) 25 (20%)
   CRP 51 to 100 106 (17%) 78 (16%) 28 (22%)
   CRP >100 134 (22%) 61 (12%) 73 (57%)
  1. *Means and standard deviation; number of patients and percentages