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Table 3 Changes in primary and secondary outcomes

From: Efficacy of aerobic exercise and a prudent diet for improving selected lipids and lipoproteins in adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Variable Studies (#) Participants (#) ES (#) (95% CI) Q(p) I 2(%) 95% PI
Primary Outcomes        
- TC (mg/dl) 6 559 8 -15.5 (-20.3, -10.7)a 221.0 (<0.001)a 96.8 -32.1, 1.1
- HDL-C (mg/dl) 6 559 8 -0.5 (-4.0, 3.1) 1678.9 (<0.001)a 99.6 -13.6, 12.6
- TC:HDL-C 4 429 6 -0.4 (-0.7, -0.2)a 11.5 (0.04)a 56.7 -1.0, 0.1
- LDL-C (mg/dl) 6 559 8 -9.2 (-12.7, -5.8)a 143.5 (<0.001)a 95.1 -21, 2.5
- TG (mg/dl) 6 559 8 -10.6 (-17.2, -4.0)a 691.9 (<0.001)a 99.0 -32.5, 11.3
Secondary Outcomes        
- Body weight (kg) 5 481 7 -5.7 (-7.4, -4.1)a 26.7 (<0.001)a 77.5 -11.0, -0.5
- BMI (kg/m2) 4 217 4 -1.5 (-2.1, -0.8)a 11.7 (0.008)a 74.3 -4.2, 1.3
- WHR 3 312 4 -0.01(-0.015, 0.003) 4.0 (0.3) 25.8 -0.03, 0.02
- VO2max(ml.kg-1.min-1) 4 384 5 5.1 (2.7, 7.5)a 33.2 (<0.001)a 88.0 -3.9, 14.1
- Kilocalories (total) 4 450 6 -283 (-453, -114)a 17.5 (0.004)a 71.5 -805, 238
- Carbohydrates (%) 4 323 5 6.0 (4.0, 8.0)a 18.6 (0.001)a 78.4 -1.1, 13.2
- Total fat (%) 5 493 7 -7.6 (-9.8, -5.3)a 54.1 (<0.001)a 88.9 -15.3, 0.2
- Saturated fat (%) 4 348 5 -4.2 (-5.4, -3.1)a 24.3 (<0.001)a 83.6 -8.5, 0.1
- Cholesterol (mg) 3 386 5 -115 (-148, -83)a 10.3 (<0.04)a 61.2 -222, -9.0
  1. Notes: ES, effect sizes; #, number in which data were available for; (95% CI), mean and 95% confidence interval; Q(p), Cochran's Q statistic for heterogeneity and alpha value; I 2 (%), percent inconsistency statistic; 95% PI, 95% prediction intervals for a new study; astatistically significant; TC, total cholesterol; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; TC:HDL-C, TC:HDL-C ratio; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; TG, triglycerides; BMI, body mass index; WHR, waist to hip ratio; VO2max, maximum oxygen consumption; %, percentage of total kilocalorie intake; To convert TC, HDL-C and LDL-C from mg/dl to mmol, divide by 38.46; To convert TG from mg/dl to mmol, divide by 87.72.