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Table 2 Overview of extracted MITSa elements

From: Best practice for motor imagery: a systematic literature review on motor imagery training elements in five different disciplines

Number MITS element MITS element description and categories PETTLEP category Dominant category found in successful MIb interventions
1 Position Describes the position of the individual during MI practice as task-specific or not task-specific. Physical Task-specific
2 Location Describes the location of MITS as task-specific or not task-specific. Environment Task-specific
3 Focus Each task consists of different parts. Focus of the intervention classifies the main focus of task-related activities that had to be imagined: motor, cognitive or strength. Task Motor-focused activities
4 Order Describes temporal order of MI and PPc trials. MI trials could have been performed before, between, after or simultaneously with PP. Timing MI after PP
5 Integration Describes whether MI practice has been added to PP or embedded dinto PP.   Added
6 MI instructions medium MI instructions can be provided differently through one or more media types. Media type was scored as acoustic, written or visual. More than one media type could be assigned. Learning Acoustic
7 Instruction mode In addition to the instruction medium, the mode was classified as live or pre-recorded (for example, using tape or video).   Live
8 Supervision MITS could have been supervised or not supervised by an instructor present during the session.   Supervised
9 Directedness MITS could have been directed dor non-directed when stepwise guidance was present or not.   Non-directed
10 Instruction type The description of MI instructions varied. Instructions could cover detailed descriptions for each part of the task that had to be imagined, simple keywords, or coarse (broad) overall MI instructions.   Detailed
11 Instruction individuali-sation MI instructions could have been individualised to the participant's problems with the task that had to be imagined (tailored), or could have been the same for each participant (standardised).   Standardised
12 Familiari-sation Describe whether study participants had received an MI familiarisation session before the MI intervention began.   No familiarisation
13 Change Indicated whether modification of content, duration or dosage of the MI training occurred, to facilitate the learning process during the MI intervention period.   
14 MI session MITS could have been classified as group sessions with more than one person participating in a MITS or as individual sessions with one participant only. Emotion Individual
15 Eyes During the MI, the participant's eyes could have been closed or open. In some interventions, participants started with one condition and changed to the other after one or several MITS.   Closed
16 Perspective During the MI, participants could have imagined the task from an internal or external perspective. In some interventions, participants started with one condition and changed to the other after one or several MITS. Perspective Internal
17 Mode During the MI, participants could have used a kinaesthetic or visual mode. In some MI interventions, participants started with one condition and changed to the other during one or after several MITS.   Kinaesthetic
  1. aMotor imagery training session.
  2. bMotor imagery.
  3. cPhysical practice.
  4. dUsed in MI interventions with no change or negative results, and differing from successful MI interventions.