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Table 3 Overview of extracted descriptive study data for the discipline Education

From: Best practice for motor imagery: a systematic literature review on motor imagery training elements in five different disciplines

Reference First author Year Countrya Language Study duration, days Intervention duration, days Study design Study groups Number of participants Participants Gender Age, years Body part Training task Focus Measurement events Resultsb Quality rating
                  Relative change Absolute change  
[93] Bucher, L 1993 USA English 999 999 RCT 3 108 Nursing students NSt Range 19 to 21 Upper limb Remove sterile gloves M 1 (post-test) 5/10
[94] Doheny, MO 1993 USA English 1 1 RCT 4 95 Nursing students Both Mean = 21, range 18 to 40 Upper limb Intramuscular injection M 2 (pre-post test) NSt 5/10
[95] Immenroth, M 2005 DE English 2 1 RCT 3 98 Surgeons NSt Mean ± SD = 32 ± 4 Upper limb Laparoscopic cholecystectomy M 2 (pre-post test) 9/10
[96] Komesu 2009 USA English 999 1 RCT 2 68 Surgeons NSt NSt Upper limb Surgical cystoscopy C 1 (post-test) 8/10
[97] Sanders, CW 2004 USA English 21 21 RCT 3 65 Medical students NSt Students Upper limb Basic surgical procedures M 2 (pre-post test) 7/10
[98] Sanders 2008 USA English 15 2 RCT 2 64 Medical students NSt NSt Upper limb Basic surgical procedures C 3 (post-tests, FU) 9/10
[99] Stig, LC 1989 UK English 1 1 RCT 2 35 Chiropractic students Both Mean = 23, range 19 to 40 Upper limb Chiropractic adjustment skill M 2 (pre-post test) 6/10
[100] Welk, A 2007 DE English 999 999 RCT 2 41 Dentistry students Both Mean = 23 Upper limb Preparation of tooth crown C 2 (pre-post test) 8/10
[60] Wright, CJ 2008 UK English 999 28 RCT 2 56 Students Both University Students Upper limb Measuring blood pressure, antiseptic dressing task C 2 (pre-post test) 8/10
  1. aCountries: AU = Australia, BE = Belgium, BR = Brazil, CA = Canada, DE = Germany, ES = Spain, FR = France, G = German, GR = Greece, HK = Hong Kong, IL = Israel, IR = Iran, IT = Italy, KR = South Korea, NL = The Netherlands, NZ = New Zealand, PT = Portugal, SE = Sweden, UK = United Kingdom, USA = United States of America.
  2. bTwo elements were used to describe the study results: relative and absolute change: relative change evaluates the MI group results versus results of other study groups, while absolute change indicates the change of the MI group from pre- to post-test. , →, = indicate trends of the study results from pre- to post-test ( positive change, → - no change, - negative change, ≈ = no precise numbers of measurement events stated in the publication)
  3. Abbreviations: BL = Baseline, C = cognitive, CG = control group, CRPS1 = complex regional pain syndrome type 1, int. = Intervention, M = motor, N/A = not applicable, NK, not known;,NSt = not stated, S = strength