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Table 4 Overview of extracted descriptive study data for the discipline Medicine

From: Best practice for motor imagery: a systematic literature review on motor imagery training elements in five different disciplines

Reference First author Year Country Language Study duration, days Intervention duration, days Study design Study groups Number of participants Participants Gender Age, years Body part Training task Focus Measurement events Results Quality rating
                  Relative change Absolute change  
[84] Bovend'Eerdt, TJH 2009 UK E 999 56 RCT 2 11 Stroke, MS, TBI Both Mean ± SD = 50 ± 14 Whole body Muscle stretching M 2 (pre-post-test) 7/10
[58] Bovend'Eerdt, TJH 2010 UK E 126 35 RCT 2 30 Stroke, TBI, MS Both Mean ± SD = 50 ± 14 Lower limb ADL tasks M 3 (pre-post-test, FU) 8/10
[101] Cramer, SC 2007 USA E 9 7 CS N/A 20 SCI NSt Mean ± SD = 31 ± 4 Tongue, foot Tapping M 2 (pre-post-test) N/A 9/11
[102] Crosbie, J 2004 UK E 35 14 SCRD N/A 10 Stroke Both Range 45 to 81 Upper limb Reaching, grasping M 10 (BL, during int., FU) N/A 10/11
[59] Dickstein, R 2004 IL E 42 42 SCRD N/A 1 Stroke Male 69 Lower limb Walking M 5 (BL, midterm, post-test, FU) N/A 9/11
[103] Dijkerman, R 2004 UK E 28 28 CCT 3 20 Stroke Both Mean ± SD = 64 ± 9 Upper limb Reaching, grasping M 2 (pre-post-test) 5/10
[104] Dunsky, A 2006 IL E 77 42 SCRD N/A 4 Stroke Male Mean = 58, (64, 57, 63, 47) Lower limb Walking M 5 (BL, midterm, post-test, FU) N/A 9/11
[105] Dunsky, A 2008 IL E 77 21 CS N/A 17 Stroke Both Mean = 58 Lower limb Walking M 6 (BL, pre-test, during int., post-test, FU) N/A 11/11
[38] Guillot, A 2009 FR E 14 999 RCT 2 14 hand burn Both Mean ± SD = 47 ± 14, range 27 to 74 Upper limb Wrist + finger movements M ≈ 6 (pre-test, during int., post-test) 7/10
[106] Gustin, SM 2008 AU E 15 7 CS N/A 15 SCI Male Mean = 47, range 26 to 67 Lower limb Plantarflexion, dorsiflexion M 2 (pre-post-test) N/A 8/11
[107] Hewett, T 2007 USA E 56 42 SCRD N/A 5 Stroke Both Mean = 53 ± 5, range 38 to 76 Upper limb Reaching, grasping M 2 (pre-post-test) N/A 7/11
[108] Jackson, PL 2004 CA E 35 21 SCRD N/A 1 Hemorrhage- related lesion Male 38 Lower limb Foot serial response time task M 2 (pre-post-test) N/A 8/11
[109] Liu, K 2004 HK E 21 21 RCT 2 46 Stroke Both Mean = 72 Whole body ADL tasks M 3 (pre-post-test, FU) 7/10
[110] Liu, K 2004 HK E 49 14 SCRD N/A 2 Stroke Both 65, 66 Whole body ADL tasks M 3 (pre-post-test, FU) N/A 7/11
[111] Liu, KPY 2009 HK E 999 2 RCT 2 33 Stroke Both Mean = 70 ± 8 Whole body ADL tasks M 2 (pre-post-test) 8/10
[62] Malouin, F 2004 CA E 2 1 CS N/A 12 Stroke Both Mean = 53 ± 12 Lower limb Symmetrical load standing up + sitting down M 3 (pre-post-test, FU) N/A 9/11
[63] Malouin, F 2009 CA E 42 21 RCT 3 12 Stroke Both Mean = 61 ± 8, range 53 to 75 Lower limb Symmetrical load standing up + sitting down M 3 (pre-post-test, FU) 8/10
[112] McCarthy, M 2002 UK E 999 999 SCRD N/A 2 CVA, TBI Male 64, 36   Neglect M 3 (pre-test, during int., post-test) N/A 9/11
[113] Moseley, GL 2004 AU E 210 14 RCT 2 13 CRPS1 after wrist fracture Both Mean ± SD = 37 ± 15 Upper limb Hand + finger movements M 5 (pre-test, during int., post-test, FU) 7/10
[114] Moseley, GL 2005 AU E 126 14 RCT 3 20 CRPS1 after wrist fracture Both Mean = 34 ± 8 Upper limb Hand + finger movements M 5 (pre-test, during int., post-test, FU) 7/10
[47] Moseley, GL 2006 AU E 84 14 RCT 2 51 Phantom limb, CRPS1 Both 37 Upper limb Hand + finger movements M 3 (pre-post-test, FU) 7/10
[86] Moseley, GL 2008 Western Europe + AU E 1 1 CCT 2 37 CRPS1, no-CRPS1 pain Both Mean ± SD = 41 ± 14 Upper limb Hand + finger movements M 2 (pre-post-test) 5/10
[115] Mueller, K 2007 DE E 98 28 RCT 3 17 Stroke Both Mean ± SD = 62 ± 10 Upper limb Finger+hand movements M 8 (BL, during int., post-test, FU) 6/10
[116] Page, SJ 2000 USA E 28 28 RCT 2 16 Stroke Male Mean = 63 Upper limb Weightbearing + functional task M 2 (pre-post-test) 7/10
[65] Page, SJ 2001 USA E 56 42 SCRD N/A 1 Stroke Male 56 Upper limb Whole arm movements M 3 (BL, post-test) N/A 7/11
[64] Page, SJ 2001 USA E 56 42 RCT 2 13 Stroke Both Mean ± SD = 65, range 64 to 79 Upper limb Whole arm movements M 3 (BL, post-test) 7/10
[117] Page, SJ 2005 USA E 56 42 RCT 2 11 Stroke Both Mean = 62 ± 5, range 53 to 71 Upper limb Hand ADL tasks M 3 (BL, post-test) 8/10
[118] Page, SJ 2007 USA E 999 72 CS N/A 4 Stroke Both Mean = 63, range 49 to 73 Upper limb Hand ADL tasks M 2 (pre-post-test) N/A 10/11
[119] Page, SJ 2007 USA E 63 42 RCT 2 32 Stroke NSt Mean ± SD = 60 ± 14 Upper limb Hand ADL tasks M 3 (BL, post-test) 8/10
[120] Page, SJ 2009 USA E 91 70 CS N/A 10 Stroke Both Mean = 57 ± 12, range 37 to 69 Upper limb Whole arm ADL tasks M 3 (BL, post-test) N/A 9/11
[121] Page, SJ 2009 USA E 168 70 RCT 2 10 Stroke Both Mean ± SD = 61 ± 3, range 48 to 79 Upper limb Whole arm ADL tasks M 4 (BL, post-test, FU) 8/10
[122] Riccio, I 2010 IT E 42 21 RCT 2 36 Stroke Both Mean = 60 ± 12 Upper limb Whole arm ADL tasks M 3 (pre-test, first + second study part) 8/10
[123] Simmons, L 2008 UK E 999 10 CS CS 10 Stroke Both Mean = 68 ± 14 Upper limb Whole arm movements M 3 (pre-post-test, FU) N/A 7/11
[66] Stenekes, MW 2009 NL E 84 42 RCT 2 25 Surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome Both Mean ± SD = 34 ± 11 Upper limb Passive bending + straightening wrist + fingers M 3 (pre-post-test, FU) 7/10
[124] Stevens, JA 2003 USA E 128 28 SCRD N/A 2 Stroke Both 76; 63 Upper limb Wrist movements, object manipulation M 4 (pre-test, during int., post-test, FU) N/A 7/11
[125] Tamir, R 2007 IL E 84 84 RCT 2 23 Parkinson disease Both Mean ± SD = 67 ± 10 Whole body ADL tasks M 2 (pre-post-test) 7/10
[126] Yoo, EY 2006 KR E 10 999 SCRD N/A 3 Stroke Male Mean = 57, (46, 70, 56) Lower limb Symmetrical weightbearing M 21 (BL, during int., post-test, FU) N/A 9/11
  1. aCountries: AU = Australia, BE = Belgium, BR = Brazil, CA = Canada, DE = Germany, ES = Spain, FR = France, G = German, GR = Greece, HK = Hong Kong, IL = Israel, IR = Iran, IT = Italy, KR = South Korea, NL = The Netherlands, NZ = New Zealand, PT = Portugal, SE = Sweden, UK = United Kingdom, USA = United States of America.
  2. bTwo elements were used to describe the study results: relative and absolute change: relative change evaluates the MI group results versus results of other study groups, while absolute change indicates the change of the MI group from pre- to post-test. , →, = indicate trends of the study results from pre- to post-test ( positive change, → - no change, - negative change, ≈ = no precise numbers of measurement events stated in the publication)
  3. Abbreviations: BL = Baseline, C = cognitive, CG = control group, CRPS1 = complex regional pain syndrome type 1, int. = Intervention, M = motor, MS = multiple sclerosis; N/A = not applicable, NK, not known;,NSt = not stated, S = strength, SCI = spinal cord injury, TBI = traumatic brain injury