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Table 6 Overview of extracted descriptive study data for the discipline Psychology

From: Best practice for motor imagery: a systematic literature review on motor imagery training elements in five different disciplines

Reference First author Year Country Language Study duration, days Intervention duration, days Study design Study groups Number of participants Participants Gender Age, years Body part Training task Focus Measurement events Results Study rating
                  Relative change Absolute change  
[132] Allami, N 2008 FR E 1 1 RCT 5 25 Students NSt Mean = 29, range 20 to 37 Upper limb Grasping task M 2 (pre-post-test) 7/10
[133] Alves, J 1999 PT E 28 28 CCT 4 64 Pupils Both Range 15 to 17 Whole body Volleyball service M 2 (pre-post-test) 3/10
[134] Andre, C 1986 USA E 5 5 CCT 3 66 Students Male Mean = 21 ± 3 Whole body Frisbee disc gold putting/throwing M 2 (pre-post-test) 4/10
[135] Chevalier, H 1986 CA/FR E 1 1 RCT 5 30 Students Both Undergraduate students Upper limb Moving computer mouse C 1 (post-test only) 6/10
[136] Clark, LV 1960 USA E 28 21 CCT 2 144 Pupils Male High-school pupils Whole body Pacific coast one-hand foul shot M 2 (pre-post-test) 5/10
[137] Clegg, BC 2004 USA E 1 1 SCRD N/A 28 Older adults, students Both Old: mean = 74, range 62 to 88; young: mean = 22, range 18 to 26 Upper limb Movement with stylus M 1 (post-test only) N/A 8/11
[138] Corbin, CB 1967 USA E 28 21 RCT 3 30 Pupils Male High-school pupils Whole body Wand-juggling skill M 2× BL, post-test, FU 1 day 5/10
[139] Cornwall, MW 1991 USA E 4 4 RCT 2 24 Females Female Mean = 23, range 21 to 25 Lower limb Strength of quadriceps muscle S 2 (pre-post-test) 6/10
[140] Decety, J 1991 USA E 1 1 RCT 2 20 Students Both Mean = 23 ± 2 Lower limb Walking on beam M 5 (during int., post-test) 6/10
[41] Etnier, J 1996 USA E 1 1 RCT 9 153 Students Both Mean ± SD = 23 ± 4 Whole body Basketball shooting M 3 (pre-test, during int., post-test) 6/10
[141] Gassner, K 2007 DE G 999 21 RCT 2 36 Students Both Mean = 24 Lower limb Walking with knee prosthesis M 2 (pre-post-test) 7/10
[142] Gordon, S 1994 AU E 21 21 RCT 3 64 High-school pupils NSt High-school pupils Whole body Cricket outswing M 6 (pre-test, during int., post-test) 6/10
[143] Gray, SW 1990 USA E 21 14.0 RCT 2 24 Males Male Mean = 22, range 18 to 26 Whole body Forehand and backhand racquetball skills M 2 (pre-post-test) 6/10
[144] Hellwing, W 1976 DE G 14 14 CCT 2 72 Pupils Male Mean = 12, range 11 to 13 Whole body Fosbury flop M 1 (post-test) 4/10
[145] Hemayattalab, R 2009 IR E 38 24 RCT 5 40 Mentally retarded children NSt Mean = 14, range 12 to 15 Whole body Basketball free throw M 3 (pre-post-test, FU) 6/10
[146] Herrero, J 2004 ES E 7 7 CCT 2 27 Students Female Mean ± SD = 20 ± 0.1 Upper limb Bench-press S 2 (pre-post-test) 6/10
[56] Isaac, AR 1992 NZ E 126 126 CCT 2 70 Students NSt NSt Whole body Three trampoline skills M 6 (after 1, 6, 7, 12, 13, 18 weeks) 6/10
[147] Jaehme, W 1978 DE G 21 14 RCT 3 48 Pupils Male Mean = 16 Whole body Crawl swimming M 2 (pre-post-test) 5/10
[42] Jarus, T 2000 IL E 1 1 RCT 2 89 Children, adults Both Children: mean ± SD = 10 ± 1; adults: 28 ± 5; older adults: 67 ± 2 Upper limb Two-arm coordination task C 6 (during int., FU) 6/10
[148] Jones, JG 1965 AU E 14 14 RCT 2 71 Students Male Students Whole body Hock-swing upstart M 2 (during int., post-test) 7/10
[149] Kelsey, IB 1961 CA E 22 2 RCT 3 36 Students Male University students Trunk, lower limb Endurance abdominal + thigh-flexor muscles M 2 (pre-post-test) 7/10
[150] Kohl, RM 1980 USA E 1 1 RCT 3 60 Students NSt Mean = 21 Upper limb Pursuit rotor task C 28 (during int., post-test) 5/10
[150] Kohl, RM 1980 USA E 1 1 RCT 3 60 Students Male Mean = 20 Upper limb Pursuit rotor task C 36 (during int., post-test) 5/10
[150] Kohl, RM 1980 USA E 1 1 RCT 6 108 Pupils Male Mean = 17 Upper limb Pursuit rotor task C NSt 5/10
[151] Kornspan, AS 2004 USA E 5 4 RCT 4 40 Students Both Mean = 20 Whole body Golf putting M 3 (pre-post-tes)t 6/10
[152] Kremer, P 2009 AU E 1 1 RCT 4 209 Students Both Mean ± SD = 21 ± 3 Whole body Dart throwing with non-preferred hand M 2 (pre-post-test) 7/10
[153] Krigolson, O 2006 CA E 1 1 CCT 6 42 Healthy participants NSt Range 18 to 32 Lower limb Walking along walkway M 20 (during int., post-test) 4/10
[57] Lejeune, M 1994 BE E 7 4 CCT 4 40 University students + staff Both Mean = 22, range 19 to 27 Whole body Counterattack forehand and backhand (table tennis) M 3 (Pre-post-test, FU) 5/10
[154] Linden, CA 1989 USA E 14 8 RCT 2 23 Healthy participants Female Mean = 79, range 67 to 90 Whole body Walking balance, equilibrium reactions M 3 (pre-test, during int., post-test) 8/10
[45] Lutz, R 2001 USA E 1 1 RCT 5 120 Students Both Undergraduate students Whole body Golf putting M 2 (pre-post-test) 7/10
[155] Maring, JR 1990 USA E 1 1 RCT 2 26 University students + staff Both Mean = 30; range 22 to 40 Upper limb Tossing a ping-pong ball to target M 2 (pre-post-test) 6/10
[67] Martin, KA 1995 CA E 6 6 RCT 3 39 Students Both Mean ± SD = 27 ± 6 Whole body Golf putting M 2 (pre-post-test) 6/10
[156] McAleney, P 1990 USA E 999 21 RCT 2 20 Students Both Mean = 19, range 18 to 20 Whole body Tennis shooting skills M 2 (pre-post-test) 7/10
[157] Minas, SC 1978 UK E 1 1 RCT 4 32 Students Both Undergraduate students Whole body Throwing performance M 2 (pre-post-test) 6/10
[68] O, J 2008 CA E 999 1 RCT 5 97 Healthy students Both Mean ± SD = 18 ± 2 Whole body Dribbling a soccer ball M 2 (pre-post-test) 7/10
[158] Papaxanthis, PC 2002 FR E 1 1 RCT 2 16 Students Both Mean = 21, range 19 to 23 Lower + upper limb Walking + writing task M 5 (during int., post-test) 6/10
[159] Phipps, SJ 1969 USA E 21 21 RCT 2 72 Students Male University students Whole body Hock swing, jump-foot, soccer hitch kick M 2 (pre-post-test) 6/10
[160] Ranganathan, VK 2004 USA E 231 84 RCT 4 30 Healthy participants Both Mean ± SD = 30 ± 5 Upper limb Muscle strength of little finger abduction, elbow flexion S 18 (BL, during int., FU) 6/10
[35] Rapp, G 1973 DE G 14 9 RCT 3 58 Pre-school children Both Mean = 6 Whole body Skipping M 2 (pre-post-test) 7/10
[161] Rawlings, E 1972 USA E 11 10 RCT 3 24 Students Female Undergraduate students Upper limb Rotary pursuit tracking C 10 (pre-test, during int., post-test) 6/10
[161] RawlingsE 1972 USA E 10 9 RCT 2 20 Students Male Students Upper limb Rotary pursuit tracking C 10 (pre-test, during int., post-test) 5/10
[69] Reiser, M 2005 DE G 28 28 RCT 3 34 Students Both Mean ± SD = 24 ± 2, range 20 to 27 Upper limb Bench-press S 4 (pre-test, during int., post-test) 6/10
[83] Rodrigues, EC 2010 BR E 1 1 CS N/A 18 Students Both Mean = 26, range 19 to 33 Lower limb Plantar flexion M 2 (pre-post-test) 9/11
[162] Ryan, E 1981 USA E 1 1 RCT 3 39 Students Male Undergraduate students Upper limb + whole body 'Dial-a-maze' pattern, stabilometer performance M 2 (pre-post-test) 5/10
[163] Ryan, E 1982 USA E 1 1 RCT 6 80 Traffic officers Male Mean = 36, range 23 to 57 Whole body Stabilometer performance M 4 (pre-test, during int., post-test) 7/10
[164] Shackell, EM 2007 CA E 21 10 RCT 3 30 Students Male Mean ± SD = 20 ± 2 Lower limb Strength-training of hip flexor muscle S 2 (pre-post-test) 7/10
[165] Sidaway, B 2005 USA E 28 28 RCT 3 24 Students Both Mean = 23, range 19 to 26 Lower limb Ankle dorsiflexor torque M 2 (pre-post-test) 7/10
[166] Singer, RN 1970 USA E 35 28 RCT 5 65 Students Female College students Upper limb Learning a pursuit rotor task C 2 (pre-post-test) 5/10
[167] Smith, LE 1962 USA E 1 1 CCT 6 60 Students Male Mean = 20, range 17 to 27 Upper limb Hand-eye coordination task; punchboard learning task M 2 (pre-post-test) 4/10
[72] Smith, D 2001 UK E 21 21 RCT 2 27 Students Both Mean ± SD = 20 ± 3 Whole body Landing hockey penalty M 2 (pre-post-test) 7/10
[71] Smith, D 2004 UK E 49 49 RCT 3 19 University students + staff Male Mean ± SD = 30 ± 8 Upper limb Strength of abductor digiti minimi S 2 (pre-post-test) 7/10
[71] Smith, D 2004 UK E 1 1 RCT 4 24 University students + staff Both Mean ± SD = 29 ± 8 Upper limb Barrier knock-down task C 2 (pre-post-test) 7/10
[168] Smyth, MM 1975 UK E 1 1 RCT 7 70 Students Both Undergraduate and postgraduate students Upper limb Mirror drawing of a star C 2 (pre-post-test) 5/10
[168] Smyth, MM 1975 UK E 1 1 RCT 7 71 Students Both Undergraduate and postgraduate students Upper limb Pursuit rotor task C 1 (post-test) 5/10
[169] Start, KB 1960 AU E 9 9 CS N/A 35 Pupils Male 12 Whole body Basketball throw M 2 (pre-post-test) N/A 6/11
[170] Start, KB 1964 AU E 7 6 CS N/A 21 Students Male Mean = 20, range 18 to 21 Whole body Single leg upstart on high-bar M 1 (post-test) N/A 7/11
[87] Start, KB 1964 AU E 7 6 CS N/A 44 Students Male Mean = 19, range 18 to 25 Whole body Single leg upstart on high-bar M 1 (post-test) N/A 7/11
[88] Start, KB 1964 AU E 14 6 CS N/A 32 Students Male Mean = 20, range 18 to 21 Whole body Single leg upstart on high-bar M 1 (post-test) N/A 6/11
[171] Stebbins, RJ 1968 USA E 42 21 RCT 5 93 Students Male College students Whole body Throwing ball into target M 8-18 (pre-test, during int., post-test) 5/10
[172] Surburg, PR 1968 USA E 63 56 CCT 7 183 Students Male Junior college students Whole body Tennis forehand drive M 2 (pre-post-test) 5/10
[36] Taktek, K 2004 CA E 1 1 CCT 4 64 Children Both Mean = 9, range 8 to 10 Upper limb Pushing play vehicle C 2 (pre-post-test) 4/10
[73] Toussaint, L 2010 FR E 3 2 RCT 8 80 Students Both Mean ± SD = 23 ± 3 Lower limb Knee joint angles M 3 (pre-post-test, FU) 6/10
[173] Tunney, N 2006 USA E 2 2 RCT 2 19 Older adults Both Mean = 76, range 66 to 89 Lower limb Walking with quad cane + climbing four stairs M 2 (pre-post-test) 7/10
[174] Twining, W 1949 USA E 22 20 RCT 3 36 Students Male College students Whole body Throwing rings at target M 2 (pre-post-test) -1 4/10
[175] van Gyn, GH 1990 CA E 42 42 RCT 4 40 Students Both Undergraduate students Lower limb Power + sprint performance on ergometer M 2 (pre-post-test) 6/10
[176] Vandell, RA 1943 USA E 20 18 RCT 3 36 Pupils and college students Male Junior, senior high-school and college students Whole body Throwing darts at target, basketball free throws M 2 (pre-post-test) 5/10
[37] Vergeer, I 2006 UK E 28 28 RCT 3 36 University staff Both Mean ± SD = 41 ± 10 Lower limb Flexibility around hip joint M 2 (pre-post-test) 7/10
[74] Wakefield, CJ 2009 UK E 999 28 RCT 4 32 Students Female University students Whole body Netball shooting performance C 2 (pre-post-test) 7/10
[75] White, KD 1979 AU E 9 8 CCT 4 24 High-school pupils + university students NSt Mean = 19, range 13 to 27 Whole body Action-reaction swimming start M 2 (pre-post-test) 4/10
[177] Whiteley, G 1966 UK E 84 84 CCT 4 88 Pupils Male Mean = 11 Whole body Neck spring, head spring, short-arm overswing M 1 (post-test) 3/10
[76] Williams, JG 2004 UK E 21 21 RCT 3 24 Undergraduate students Both Mean ± SD = 21 ± 2 Lower limb Rom hip flexion M 6 (pre-test, during int., post-test, FU) 7/10
[178] Wohldamm, EL 2007 USA E 84 2 CCT 4 80 Students NSt Undergraduate and postgraduate students Upper limb Number typing task M 2 (post-test) 4/10
[178] Wohldamm, EL 2007 USA E 1 1 CCT 4 108 Students NSt Undergraduate and postgraduate students Upper limb Number typing task M 3 (pre-test, FU) 5/10
[179] Woolfolk, RL 1985 USA E 1 1 RCT 6 48 Students Male Undergraduate college students Whole body Putt golf balls into cup M 2 (pre-post-test) 7/10
[180] Woolfolk, RL 1985 USA E 7 6 RCT 3 30 Students Both College students Whole body Golf backswing and putting stroke M 2 (pre-post test) 5/10
[77] Wright, CJ 2009 UK E 999 42 RCT 5 50 Students NSt Mean ± SD = 21 ± 4 Upper limb Biceps curl task S 2 (pre-post-test) 7/10
[78] Yaguez, L 1998 DE E 1 1 CCT 2 58 Volunteers Both Mean ± SD = 35 ± 11, range 22 to 73 Upper limb Ideogram drawing C 3 (pre-test, during int., post-test) 6/10
[78] Yaguez, L 1998 DE G 1 1 CCT 2 52 Volunteers Both Mean = 30, range 22 to 49 Upper limb Connecting circles C 3 (pre-test, during int., post-test) 6/10
[181] Zecker, SG 1982 USA E 1 1 RCT 4 40 Students Both Undergraduate college students Whole body Tossing beanbag to target M 2 (pre-post-test) 5/10