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Table 2 Sensitivity analysis to identify sources of heterogeneity in the association between DM and TB

From: The impact of diabetes on tuberculosis treatment outcomes: A systematic review

TB Outcome Variables Study Characteristics
(No. of studies)
Summary effect estimates 95% CI I2 95% CI I2 P Value Heterogeneity P Value
Meta-
regression
Sputum culture conversion at 2-3 months Background TB incidence ≥ 100,000 (2) 0.87 0.50-1.51 0% NA 0.77 0.53
   ≥ 10,000 and < 100,000 (6) 2.22 1.85-2.66 0% 0%-75% 0.70  
   < 10,000 (1) 0.98 0.54-1.77 NA NA NA  
  Type of TB Pulmonary (7) 1.91 1.41-2.59 52% 0%-79% 0.05 0.18
   Pulmonary and extrapulmonary (2) 1.08 0.67-1.76 0% NA 0.56  
  DM diagnosis Patient or medical report (6) 2.22 1.85-2.66 0% 0%-75% 0.71 < 0.01
   Laboratory test (3) 0.92 0.62-1.38 0% 0%-90% 0.92  
  Loss to follow-up < 10% (1) 1.33 0.58-3.04 NA NA NA 0.84
   ≥ 10% (2) 1.75 0.51-5.95 84% NA 0.01  
Failure and Death Background TB incidence ≥ 100,000 (3) 2.11 1.26-3.53 20% 0%-92% 0.29 0.63
   ≥ 10,000 and < 100,000 (6) 1.49 1.23-1.80 0% 0%-75% 0.51  
   < 10,000 (3) 1.80 0.63-5.13 55% 0%-87% 0.11  
  Type of TB Pulmonary (7) 1.62 1.26-2.07 26% 0%-68% 0.23 0.49
   Pulmonary and extrapulmonary (5) 2.08 1.27-3.42 6% 0%-80% 0.38  
  DM diagnosis Patient or medical report (8) 1.51 1.25-1.82 0% 0%-68% 0.49 0.10
   Laboratory diagnosis (4) 1.97 1.12-3.46 42% 0%-80% 0.16  
  Loss to follow-up < 10% (4) 1.72 1.25-2.37 52% 0%-84% 0.10 0.98
   ≥ 10% (8) 1.77 1.21-2.59 3% 0%-69% 0.41  
Death Background TB incidence ≥ 100,000 (3) 2.63 0.86-8.02 62% 0%-89% 0.07 0.98
   ≥ 10,000 and < 100,000 (13) 1.62 1.33-1.97 8% 0%-60% 0.37  
   < 10,000 (7) 1.95 1.12-3.40 74% 45%-88% < 0.01  
  Type of TB Pulmonary (11) 1.97 1.46-2.65 52% 5%-76% 0.02 0.59
   Pulmonary and extrapulmonary (12) 1.84 1.28-2.64 41% 0%-70% 0.07  
  DM diagnosis Patient or medical report (18) 1.82 1.42-2.32 50% 15%-71% < 0.01 0.33
   Laboratory diagnosis (5) 2.37 1.49-3.78 1% 0%-79% 0.40  
  Loss to follow-up < 10% (9) 1.43 1.19-1.72 16% 0%-58% 0.30 0.12
   ≥ 10% (7) 2.22 1.24-3.98 21% 0%-64% 0.27  
  Survival analysis Survival analysis (1) 4.8 2.0-11.6 NA NA NA 0.18
   Alternative analysis (22) 1.81 1.45-2.26 42% 4%-65% 0.02