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Table 2 Prevalence (%) of DSM-IV/CIDI major depressive episodes in the 18 countries participating in the WMH surveys a

From: Cross-national epidemiology of DSM-IV major depressive episode

  Screen positive, mean ± SE Lifetime prevalence, mean ± SE Lifetime/ Screen positive, ± mean ± SE 12-month prevalence, mean ± SE 12-month/ Screen positive, mean ± SE 12-month/ lifetime, mean ± SE Age of onset, median (IQR)b
I. High-income        
Belgium 49.4 ± 2.5 14.1 ± 1.0 28.5 ± 1.9 5.0 ± 0.5 10.0 ± 1.0 35.2(2.8 29.4 (20.9 to 41.3)
France 65.0 ± 1.7 21.0 ± 1.1 32.3 ± 1.4 5.9 ± 0.6 9.0 ± 0.9 27.9(2.6 28.4 (19.3 to 38.9)
Germany 43.1 ± 1.4 9.9 ± 0.6 23.0 ± 1.3 3.0 ± 0.3 6.9 ± 0.6 30.1 ± 2.1 27.6 (18.6 to 39.6)
Israel 45.1 ± 0.8 10.2 ± 0.5 22.6 ± 1.0 6.1 ± 0.4 13.5 ± 0.8 59.6 ± 2.3 25.5 (18.1 to 38.5)
Italy 44.9 ± 1.7 9.9 ± 0.5 22.1 ± 1.0 3.0 ± 0.2 6.7 ± 0.5 30.2 ± 1.9 27.7 (19.1 to 39.1)
Japan 29.9 ± 0.8 6.6 ± 0.5 22.2 ± 1.4 2.2 ± 0.4 7.4 ± 1.2 33.3 ± 4.2 30.1 (20.8 to 45.3)
Netherlands 53.2 ± 1.6 17.9 ± 1.0 33.6 ± 1.8 4.9 ± 0.5 9.2 ± 1.0 27.3 ± 2.6 27.2 (19.3 to 39.5)
New Zealand 61.9 ± 0.6 17.8 ± 0.4 28.7 ± 0.6 6.6 ± 0.3 10.6 ± 0.5 37.0 ± 1.5 24.2 (16.1 to 34.5)c
Spain 37.7 ± 1.0 10.6 ± 0.5 28.2 ± 1.2 4.0 ± 0.3 10.6 ± 0.8 37.5 ± 1.9 30.0 (19.7 to 44.3)
United States 62.0 ± 0.9 19.2 ± 0.5 30.9 ± 0.7 8.3 ± 0.3 13.3 ± 0.5 43.1 ± 1.2 22.7 (15.1 to 34.6)
Total 52.3 ± 0.4 14.6 ± 0.2 28.1 ± 0.3 5.5 ± 0.1 10.6 ± 0.2 37.7 ± 0.7 25.7 (17.3 to 37.2)
II. Low- to middle-income        
Sao Pâulo, Brazil 66.0 ± 1.0 18.4 ± 0.8 27.9 ± 1.1 10.4 ± 0.6 15.8 ± 0.8 56.7 ± 1.5 24.3 (17.2 to 35.8)
Colombia 58.6 ± 1.1 13.3 ± 0.6 22.6 ± 1.0 6.2 ± 0.4 10.6 ± 0.7 46.7 ± 2.6 23.5 (15.6 to 33.6)
Pondicherry, India 25.0 ± 0.9 9.0 ± 0.5 35.9 ± 1.5 4.5 ± 0.4 18.0 ± 1.4 50.0 ± 3.0 31.9 (24.5 to 42.7)
Lebanon 57.7 ± 1.8 10.9 ± 0.9 18.9 ± 1.3 5.5 ± 0.7 9.5 ± 1.2 50.0 ± 3.7 23.8 (17.5 to 32.8)
Mexico 40.6 ± 1.1 8.0 ± 0.5 19.6 ± 1.2 4.0 ± 0.3 9.8 ± 0.8 50.0 ± 2.7 23.5 (16.7 to 34.0)
Shenzen, China 54.6 ± 0.9 6.5 ± 0.4 12.0 ± 0.7 3.8 ± 0.3 6.9 ± 0.5 58.0 ± 2.6 18.8 (14.9 to 23.4)
South Africa 56.1 ± 1.3 9.8 ± 0.7 17.4 ± 1.2 4.9 ± 0.4 8.6 ± 0.8 49.6 ± 2.7 22.3 (15.8 to 33.8)
Ukraine 82.4 ± 1.1 14.6 ± 0.7 17.7 ± 0.8 8.4 ± 0.6 10.2 ± 0.7 57.8 ± 2.2 27.8 (18.7 to 39.6)
Total 54.1 ± 0.4 11.1 ± 0.2 19.8 ± 0.4 5.9 ± 0.2 10.5 ± 0.3 53.3 ± 0.9 24.0 (17.0 to 34.8)
  1. aAssessed in part I sample. Prevalence for the pooled samples (developed and developing) include respondents ages 18+. Prevalence for individual countries are assessed for the total sample in the country.
  2. bIQR, interquartile range.