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Table 3 Comparisons of functional impairment (WHO-DAS Global Scores)a by recency of DSM-IV/CIDI major depressive episodes in the 18 countries participating in the WMH surveys

From: Cross-national epidemiology of DSM-IV major depressive episode

  Past 30 days Past 12 monthsb > 12 months ago No lifetime MDE   
  Mean ± SE n Mean ± SE n Mean ± SE n Mean ± SE n SDc F
I. High-income           
Belgium 11.3 ± 3.3+ 42 7.5 ± 2.1+ 71 3.5 ± 0.5 254 3.2 ± 0.7 676 8.4 3.2*
France 13.6 ± 2.6+ 38 6.6 ± 1.1 + 134 4.0 ± 0.5 476 3.2 ± 0.4 788 8.4 7.9*
Germany 15.3 ± 5.4+ 36 4.1 ± 1.0 73 2.4 ± 0.4 263 2.7 ± 0.3 951 7.9 2.8
Israel 21.5 ± 2.4+ 82 9.7 ± 1.0+ 208 6.8 ± 0.8+ 211 5.0 ± 0.2 4358 12.0 24.7*
Italy 15.4 ± 2.5+ 58 6.3 ± 2.0+ 71 3.0 ± 0.4+ 323 2.1 ± 0.2 1327 6.8 13.5*
Japan 2.9 ± 2.6 11 2.9 ± 0.8+ 49 1.5 ± 0.2 125 1.0 ± 0.2 882 4.4 2.3
Netherlands 17.9 ± 2.4+ 42 5.7 ± 1.1 93 5.1 ± 0.4 341 4.1 ± 0.5 618 8.8 12.5*
New Zealand 11.7 ± 1.0+ 292 5.0 ± 0.5+ 606 3.2 ± 0.2+ 1473 2.5 ± 0.1 5064 7.6 32.9*
Spain 15.7 ± 2.2+ 109 6.1 ± 1.0+ 138 4.3 ± 0.6+ 425 2.1 ± 0.2 1449 7.6 24.9*
United States 15.8 ± 1.2+ 297 7.6 ± 0.6+ 496 4.3 ± 0.2+ 1002 3.0 ± 0.2 3896 9.0 54.9*
Total 15.3 ± 0.7+ 1005 6.8 ± 0.3+ 1942 3.9 ± 0.1+ 4903 3.0 ± 0.1 20,096 8.9 149.4*
II. Low- to middle-income d           
Sao Pâulo, Brazil 12.9 ± 1.6+ 260 6.8 ± 0.6+ 280 4.1 ± 0.5+ 413 1.8 ± 0.2 1989 7.8 44.0*
Colombia 5.1 ± 1.4+ 82 3.3 ± 0.7+ 194 1.8 ± 0.3+ 316 0.9 ± 0.1 1789 4.2 11.1*
Pondicherry, India 2.3 ± 0.5+ 71 3.2 ± 0.8+ 83 1.5 ± 0.4 153 1.0 ± 0.1 1066 4.3 3.9*
Lebanon 9.3 ± 1.5+ 72 3.7 ± 0.8+ 71 3.4 ± 0.7+ 162 1.5 ± 0.2 726 5.8 17.3*
Mexico 8.0 ± 1.8+ 117 3.4 ± 0.7+ 142 1.4 ± 0.3+ 250 0.6 ± 0.1 1853 4.3 8.5*
Shenzen, China 3.3 ± 0.5+ 101 1.7 ± 0.4+ 144 0.6 ± 0.1 138 0.5 ± 0.0 2093 2.4 16.9*
Ukraine 14.8 ± 1.2+ 229 10.91.1+ 159 6.8 ± 1.1+ 238 3.7 ± 0.3 1093 9.7 46.3*
Total 10.1 ± 0.7+ 932 5.2 ± 0.3+ 1073 3.1 ± 0.2+ 1670 1.3 ± 0.1 10,608 6.1 112.6*
  1. *Significantly different at the .05 level based on a 3 degree of freedom test
  2. +Significantly different from respondents with no lifetime MDE at the +.05 level, 2-sided test
  3. aWHO-DAS: World Health Organization-Disability Assessment Schedule
  4. bExcludes respondents with MDE in the past 30 days
  5. cSD: Standard deviation of the impairment score in the total sample
  6. dData for South Africa are not available.