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Table 4 Associations of demographic characteristics with 12-month DSM-IV/CIDI major depressive episode in high-income countries (bivariate analyses)a

From: Cross-national epidemiology of DSM-IV major depressive episode

Parameter Total, OR (95% CI) Belgium, OR (95% CI) France, OR (95% CI) Germany, OR (95% CI) Israel, OR (95% CI) Italy, OR (95% CI) Japan, OR (95% CI) Netherlands, OR (95% CI) New Zealand, OR (95% CI) Spain, OR (95% CI) USA, OR (95% CI)
Gender            
Women 1.8 (1.6 to 2.0)* 1.6 (0.9 to 2.8) 1.7 (1.2 to 2.5)* 1.7 (1.0 to 3.0) 1.6 (1.2 to 2.1)* 2.5 (1.6 to 3.8)* 2.3 (1.4 to 4.0)* 2.3 (1.5 to 3.5)* 1.7 (1.4 to 2.1)* 2.7 (1.9 to 3.8)* 1.7 (1.4 to 2.1)*
Men 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Age            
18-34 2.7 (2.3 to 3.1)* 2.6 (0.9 to 7.7) 3.5 (1.7 to 7.4)* 3.8 (1.6 to 9.2)* 1.1 (0.7 to 1.6) 0.8 (0.5 to 1.5) 4.8 (2.3 to 10.0)* 2.6 (1.2 to 5.7)* 5.5 (3.9 to 7.8)* 1.0 (0.6 to 1.7) 4.3 (3.1 to 6.0)*
35-49 2.2 (1.9 to 2.6)* 2.2 (1.0 to 4.8)* 2.5 (1.2 to 5.3)* 2.3 (1.0 to 5.5) 1.0 (0.6 to 1.4) 0.7 (0.4 to 1.3) 2.7 (1.3 to 5.6)* 2.5 (1.2 to 5.4)* 4.4 (3.2 to 6.2)* 1.1 (0.7 to 1.6) 3.9 (2.7 to 5.5)*
50-64 2.0 (1.7 to 2.3)* 2.5 (1.1 to 5.6)* 2.3 (1.1 to 4.7)* 2.4 (1.0 to 5.5)* 1.0 (0.7 to 1.6) 1.2 (0.7 to 2.1) 2.4 (1.2 to 4.8)* 1.9 (0.9 to 3.8)* 2.9 (2.0 to 4.1)* 1.6 (1.1 to 2.3)* 3.1 (2.1 to 4.5)*
65+ 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Marital status b            
Separated 3.6 (2.9 to 4.6)* 7.3 (1.8 to 29.7)* 6.2 (1.8 to 21.3)* - 2.6 (1.0 to 6.8) 2.8 (1.1 to 7.5)* 10.8 (2.1 to 55.6)* - 3.4 (2.4 to 4.8)* 3.2 (1.3 to 7.7)* 4.0 (2.7 to 6.0)*
Divorced 2.1 (1.8 to 2.5)* 1.9 (0.7 to 5.3) 1.1 (0.5 to 2.5) 3.1 (1.4 to 7.1)* 2.2 (1.5 to 3.4)* 0.6 (0.1 to 5.0) 5.1 (2.1 to 12.6)* 2.7 (1.5 to 4.9)* 2.8 (2.0 to 3.8)* 3.3 (1.2 to 8.9)* 1.7 (1.3 to 2.3)*
Widowed 1.4 (1.2 to 1.7)* 1.4 (0.6 to 3.4) 1.5 (0.7 to 3.2) 2.3 (1.2 to 4.5)* 2.1 (1.4 to 3.3)* 1.5 (0.9 to 2.7) 0.9 (0.4 to 2.1) 0.8 (0.3 to 2.2) 1.3 (0.9 to 1.8) 1.4 (0.9 to 2.2) 1.2 (0.8 to 1.9)
Never married 1.8 (1.6 to 2.0)* 1.3 (0.6 to 2.9) 2.0 (1.2 to 3.5)* 2.6 (1.6 to 4.2)* 1.4 (1.0 to 1.9)* 1.5 (1.0 to 2.2) 3.1 (1.6 to 5.7)* 1.8 (1.0 to 3.4) 2.3 (1.8 to 3.0)* 0.9 (0.6 to 1.4) 1.8 (1.5 to 2.1)*
Currently married 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Living arrangements           
Alone 1.8 (1.6 to 2.0)* 1.3 (0.6 to 2.7) 1.4 (0.9 to 2.3) 2.5 (1.6 to 3.9)* 2.1 (1.5 to 2.9)* 1.7 (1.1 to 2.8)* 2.9 (1.2 to 6.8)* 1.6 (1.1 to 2.4)* 1.8 (1.4 to 2.3)* 1.0 (0.7 to 1.6) 1.7 (1.4 to 2.2)*
With others 1.9 (1.7 to 2.2)* 1.5 (0.8 to 2.8) 2.2 (1.4 to 3.7)* 2.9 (1.6 to 5.1)* 1.6 (1.2 to 2.1)* 1.4 (0.9 to 2.1) 3.0 (1.6 to 5.6)* 1.9 (0.8 to 4.3) 2.5 (2.0 to 3.1)* 1.2 (0.8 to 1.7) 1.8 (1.5 to 2.1)*
With spouse 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Income            
Low 1.7 (1.5 to 2.0)* 1.3 (0.7 to 2.6) 2.4 (1.2 to 4.6)* 2.7 (1.3 to 5.6)* 1.1 (0.7 to 1.7) 1.3 (0.6 to 2.9) 0.5 (0.2 to 1.4) 1.1 (0.6 to 1.9) 2.2 (1.6 to 3.0)* 1.0 (0.5 to 2.0) 2.1 (1.5 to 2.8)*
Low average 1.3 (1.1 to 1.5)* 1.1 (0.5 to 2.4) 1.4 (0.7 to 2.6) 1.6 (0.7 to 3.5) 0.9 (0.6 to 1.3) 1.2 (0.6 to 2.3) 0.5 (0.2 to 1.2) 0.8 (0.4 to 1.8) 1.5 (1.2 to 2.0)* 1.1 (0.7 to 1.8) 1.4 (1.0 to 1.8)*
High average 1.1 (0.9 to 1.2) 0.9 (0.4 to 2.0) 1.3 (0.7 to 2.3) 1.6 (0.9 to 3.1) 0.8 (0.6 to 1.1) 0.9 (0.5 to 1.5) 0.5 (0.2 to 1.3) 0.8 (0.5 to 1.6) 1.3 (1.0 to 1.7) 1.0 (0.6 to 1.5) 1.1 (0.8 to 1.5)
High 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Education            
Low 1.0 (0.9 to 1.2) 1.4 (0.8 to 2.5) - 1.0 (0.2 to 4.3) 1.5 (1.0 to 2.2)* 1.5 (0.9 to 2.5) 0.2 (0.1 to 0.6)* 1.1 (0.6 to 1.9) 0.9 (0.7 to 1.2) 1.2 (0.7 to 1.9) 1.4 (1.1 to 1.8)*
Low average 1.1 (1.0 to 1.3) 0.9 (0.4 to 2.2) - 1.6 (0.4 to 5.8) 1.3 (0.9 to 1.8) 0.8 (0.4 to 1.4) 0.7 (0.4 to 1.4) 1.3 (0.7 to 2.6) 1.1 (0.8 to 1.4) 0.8 (0.5 to 1.3) 1.2 (0.9 to 1.5)
High average 1.1 (0.9 to 1.3) 1.8 (0.8 to 3.8) - 1.1 (0.2 to 5.2) 1.0 (0.7 to 1.6) 0.9 (0.5 to 1.5) 0.7 (0.3 to 1.6) 1.5 (0.7 to 3.2) 0.9 (0.7 to 1.1) 1.0 (0.7 to 1.6) 1.4 (1.0 to 1.8)*
High 1.0 1.0 - 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
  1. *Significant at the 0.05 level, two-sided test.
  2. aAll models were bivariate models with the sociodemographic factors as predictors and 12-month MDE as the response variable. The models for total (first column) control for countries. The models for income were estimated in part II samples, whereas all other models were estimated in part I samples.
  3. bIn some countries, people were categorized as separated/widowed/divorced because they were known to have married previously but not any longer, but the specific category was unknown. These cases were dropped from the model using marriage as the predictor. Specifically, there was one such case in Japan, two cases in the USA, one case in New Zealand, and ninety-one in the ESEMeD countries (France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, Belgium).