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Table 5 Associations of demographic characteristics with 12-month DSM-IV/CIDI major depressive episode in low- to middle-income countries: bivariate analyses)a

From: Cross-national epidemiology of DSM-IV major depressive episode

  Total, OR (95% CI) Brazil, OR (95% CI) Colombia, OR (95% CI) India, OR (95% CI) Lebanon, OR (95% CI) Mexico, OR (95% CI) China, OR (95% CI) South Africa, OR (95% CI) Ukraine, OR (95% CI)
Gender          
Women 2.1 (1.8 to 2.3)* 2.6 (1.9 to 3.5)* 1.9 (1.4 to 2.7)* 1.9 (1.3 to 2.7)* 2.1 (1.3 to 3.4)* 2.1 (1.5 to 2.9)* 1.2 (0.8 to 1.7) 2.2 (1.5 to 3.2)* 2.5 (2.0 to 3.0)*
Men 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Age          
18-34 0.9 (0.8 to 1.1) 3.0 (1.6 to 5.7)* 4.9 (0.9 to 28.3) 0.4 (0.2 to 1.0)* 1.7 (0.8 to 3.7) 0.4 (0.2 to 1.2) 2.8 (0.8 to 9.4) 1.3 (0.6 to 2.6) 0.4 (0.3 to 0.6)*
35-49 1.0 (0.8 to 1.2) 3.3 (1.7 to 6.5)* 3.9 (0.7 to 23.1) 1.2 (0.6 to 2.5) 2.2 (1.0 to 5.2) 0.5 (0.2 to 1.3) 1.6 (0.5 to 5.3) 1.6 (0.8 to 3.2) 0.5 (0.3 to 0.7)*
50-64 1.0 (0.8 to 1.3) 2.5 (1.4 to 4.5)* 3.4 (0.6 to 20.1) 1.5 (0.7 to 3.2) 1.9 (0.9 to 4.1) 0.5 (0.2 to 1.5) 0.8 (0.2 to 3.3) 1.7 (0.8 to 3.6) 0.7 (0.5 to 1.1)
65+ 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Marital status b          
Separated 1.7 (1.3 to 2.2)* 1.6 (1.1 to 2.3)* 0.9 (0.6 to 1.6) 8.2 (2.2 to 30.6)* 19.3 (5.0 to 74.4)* 1.9 (1.0 to 3.6)* - 2.7 (0.7 to 9.6) 6.6 (1.1 to 38.0)*
Divorced 3.0 (2.4 to 3.9)* 3.0 (1.9 to 4.9)* 1.2 (0.3 to 4.3) - 0.8 (0.2 to 4.2) 1.2 (0.4 to 3.8) 6.2 (2.2 to 17.3)* 2.1 (1.3 to 3.5)* 4.2 (2.9 to 6.2)*
Widowed 2.7 (2.2 to 3.2)* 1.1 (0.7 to 1.9) 1.6 (0.9 to 2.9) 2.2 (1.5 to 3.2)* 1.4 (0.6 to 3.6) 2.7 (1.5 to 5.0)* 4.1 (0.8 to 20.7) 2.3 (1.3 to 4.0)* 8.0 (5.3 to 12.0)*
Never married 1.0 (0.9 to 1.1) 1.0 (0.7 to 1.3) 1.3 (0.9 to 1.8) 0.3 (0.1 to 0.6)* 1.3 (0.8 to 2.0) 0.8 (0.5 to 1.3) 1.4 (1.0 to 1.9) 0.7 (0.5 to 1.0)* 0.8 (0.5 to 1.3)
Currently married 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Living arrangements         
Alone 1.6 (1.4 to 1.9)* 1.3 (0.8 to 2.0) 0.6 (0.3 to 1.2) 1.2 (0.6 to 2.5) 1.3 (0.7 to 2.5) 1.0 (0.5 to 1.9) 1.6 (1.1 to 2.3)* 1.2 (0.8 to 1.9) 2.5 (1.9 to 3.3)*
With others 1.2 (1.1 to 1.3)* 1.2 (1.0 to 1.5) 1.3 (0.9 to 1.8) 0.6 (0.4 to 0.9)* 1.4 (0.8 to 2.2) 1.1 (0.8 to 1.6) 0.9 (0.4 to 2.1) 0.9 (0.6 to 1.2) 1.5 (1.1 to 2.0)*
With spouse 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Income          
Low 1.1 (0.9 to 1.3) 1.0 (0.7 to 1.5) 1.4 (0.8 to 2.3) 1.7 (0.9 to 3.2) 1.0 (0.5 to 2.3) 2.1 (1.4 to 3.2)* 0.7 (0.4 to 1.2) 0.9 (0.6 to 1.4) 0.7 (0.4 to 1.3)
Low average 1.1 (0.9 to 1.3) 1.1 (0.8 to 1.6) 1.5 (0.9 to 2.5) 2.1 (1.2 to 3.8)* 1.1 (0.5 to 2.5) 1.5 (1.0 to 2.3) 0.6 (0.3 to 1.0) 0.9 (0.5 to 1.4) 0.8 (0.4 to 1.4)
High average 1.0 (0.8 to 1.2) 1.2 (0.8 to 1.8) 0.8 (0.5 to 1.3) 2.0 (1.2 to 3.5)* 1.3 (0.6 to 2.7) 1.4 (0.8 to 2.2) 0.5 (0.3 to 0.8)* 0.5 (0.3 to 1.2) 0.9 (0.5 to 1.7)
High 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Education          
Low 1.1 (1.0 to 1.4) 0.7 (0.5 to 1.1) 0.9 (0.6 to 1.4) 14.1 (3.4 to 58.9)* 1.2 (0.7 to 2.1) 2.1 (1.3 to 3.2)* 0.2 (0.1 to 0.6)* 0.5 (0.2 to 1.5) 2.3 (1.4 to 3.8)*
Low average 1.1 (0.9 to 1.3) 1.1 (0.8 to 1.6) 1.2 (0.7 to 1.9) 1.0 (0.1 to 12.5) 1.2 (0.6 to 2.4) 1.6 (1.0 to 2.5) 0.5 (0.3 to 0.7)* 2.1 (1.1 to 4.1)* 1.3 (0.9 to 1.8)
High average 0.9 (0.8 to 1.1) 0.9 (0.7 to 1.2) 0.9 (0.5 to 1.5) 3.9 (0.6 to 27.0) 1.3 (0.7 to 2.4) 1.2 (0.7 to 1.9) 0.8 (0.5 to 1.2) 1.0 (0.5 to 1.9) 1.0 (0.6 to 1.5)
High 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
  1. *Significant at the 0.05 level, two-sided t-test
  2. aAll models were bivariate models with the sociodemographic factors as predictors and 12-month MDE as the response variable. The models for total (first column) control for countries. The models for income were estimated in part II samples, whereas all other models were estimated in part I samples.
  3. bIn some countries, people were categorized as separated/widowed/divorced because they were known to have married previously but not anymore, but the specific category was unknown. These cases were dropped from the model using marriage as the predictor. There were 48 cases in India, 35 in Brazil, 664 in Ukraine and 1 case in South Africa.