Skip to main content

Table 1 Neonatal and demographic characteristics

From: Reduced perinatal mortality following enhanced training of birth attendants in the Democratic Republic of Congo: a time-dependent effect

  Pre-ENC
(N = 1,867)
Post-ENC
(N = 5,528)
P-value Post-NRP Control
(N = 3,317)
Post-NRP Intervention
(N = 2,883)
P-value
Birth attendant a 1,867 5,528 0.0011 3,317 2,883 0.9971
   Physician 5 (0.3) 1 (0.0)   1 (0.0) 1 (0.0)  
   Nurse/midwife 330 (17.7) 1,242 (22.5)   973 (29.3) 859 (29.8)  
   Traditional birth attendants 1,481 (79.3) 4,248 (76.8)   2,331 (70.3) 2,012 (69.8)  
   Family/unattended/other 51 (2.7) 37 (0.7)   12 (0.4) 11 (0.4)  
Location of birth b 1,867 5,528 0.0013 3,317 2,883 0.8681
   Hospital 2 (0.1) 3 (0.1)   3 (0.1) 1 (0.0)  
   Clinic 403 (21.6) 1,473 (26.6)   1,056 (31.8) 988 (34.3)  
   Birth attendant home 1,328 (71.1) 4,019 (72.7)   2,248 (67.8) 1,889 (65.5)  
   Home 116 (6.2) 13 (0.2)   4 (0.1) 4 (0.1)  
   Other 18 (1.0) 20 (0.4)   6 (0.2) 1 (0.0)  
Maternal education 1,864 5,515 0.9603 3,315 2,880 0.0411
   No school 1,204 (64.6) 3,545 (64.3)   2,472 (74.6) 1,693 (58.8)  
   Primary 567 (30.4) 1,726 (31.3)   736 (22.2) 1,064 (36.9)  
   Secondary or above 93 (5.0) 244 (4.4)   107 (3.2) 123 (4.3)  
Neonatal characteristics       
   Multiple birth 55 (2.9) 176 (3.2) 0.7293 99 (3.0) 78 (2.7) 0.6131
   Gender 1,857 5,522 0.1936 3,316 2,877 0.0382
Male 948 (51.1) 2,896 (52.4)   1,750 (52.8) 1,459 (50.7)  
Female 909 (48.9) 2,626 (47.6)   1,566 (47.2) 1,418 (49.3)  
   Birth weight 1,853 5,508 0.7716 3,313 2,875 0.9781
1500-1999 grams 50 (2.7) 106 (1.9)   58 (1.8) 48 (1.7)  
2000-2499 grams 132 (7.1) 454 (8.2)   273 (8.2) 238 (8.3)  
≥ 2500 grams 1,671 (90.2) 4,948 (89.8)   2,982 (90.0) 2,589 (90.1)  
   Apgar 1 min < 4 74/1,852 (4.0) 196/5,522 (3.5) 0.2625 105/3,316 (3.2) 85/2,877 (3.0) 0.7124
   Apgar 5 min < 4 49/1,853 (2.6) 144/5,522 (2.6) 0.9186 91/3,316 (2.7) 67/2,877 (2.3) 0.5754
   Apneic at birth 186/1,855 (10.0) 394/5,518 (7.1) 0.0017 193/3,315 (5.8) 158/2,877 (5.5) 0.7470
   Bag and mask ventilation 1/1,867 (0.1) 14/5,528 (0.3) 0.1901 62/3,317 (1.9) 103/2,883 (3.6) 0.0793
  1. Notes: Numbers in cells indicate number of infants for which data are available; percentages of the total are in parentheses. P-values are adjusted for cluster using GEE modeling. aThe P-values for birth attendants exclude physicians since the number of physician-attended deliveries is very small; bThe P-values for location of birth exclude hospital deliveries for the ENC period and hospital, home and other locations for the post-NRP period since the number of deliveries in these locations are very small.
  2. Abbreviations: ENR, Essential Newborn Care; GEE, generalized estimating equation; NPR, Neonatal Resuscitation Program.