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Table 2 Covariates in addition to smoking status used in the multivariate analyses

From: The "smoker's paradox" in patients with acute coronary syndrome: a systematic review

Study Baseline and clinical characteristics Reperfusion and medication
Studies supporting the existence of a smoker's paradox
Mølstad [25] Age, atrial fibrillation, s-creatinine, s-potassium None
Barbash et al. [12] Age, sex, MI site, diabetes, previous MI, antecedent angina, hypertension, hypotension at entry, Killip class, body mass index, hypercholesterolemia, family history of CAD Time to lysis
GUSTO-1 [13] Age, sex, systolic blood pressure, Killip class, heart rate, MI site, previous MI, previous CABG, height, diabetes, hypertension, cerebrovascular disease Time to lysis, type of thrombolytic treatment
NRMI 2 [18] Age, sex, MI site, previous MI, previous CABG, weight, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, family history of CAD, black race, other race, previous heart failure, previous PTCA, previous stroke, Q vs. non-Q, Any reperfusion therapy, aspirin first 24 hours, any heparin, intravenous nitroglycerine, beta-blocker, i.v. lidocaine, i.v. magnesium, ACE-inhibitor, calcium channel blocker, other anti-thrombin, other antiplatelet
ARIAM [26] Age, Killip class, MI site, diabetes, Q-wave, non-Q-wave with ST elevation, non-Q-wave with ST decent None
IBERICA [15] Age, sex, MI site, previous MI, diabetes, hypertension, previous angina, spline function for symptoms monitoring, cardiogenic shock or acute pulmonary oedema, severe arrhythmias Thrombolysis, primary angioplasty, aspirin, beta-blocker
Studies not supporting the existence of a smoker's paradox
Gottlieb et al. [17] Age, sex, systolic blood pressure < 100 mmHg, heart rate > 100/min, Killip class ≥ 2, anterior MI, diabetes, hypertension, previous MI, previous angina, Q-wave MI, family history of CAD, CHF during index hospitalization, atrial fibrillation during hospitalization Thrombolytic therapy, invasive coronary procedures
GISSI-2 [23] Age, sex, Killip class, MI site, hypertension, diabetes, previous angina, body mass index, number of leads with ST elevation Time to lysis
TRACE [21] Age, sex, body mass index, COPD, previous angina, previous MI, hypertension, family history of CAD, CHF, wall motion index, Q wave anterior MI Thrombolytic treatment
Andrikopoulos et al. [11] Age, sex, diabetes, hypertension, previous MI Thrombolytic treatment
OPTIMAAL [20] Age, sex, COPD, cerebrovascular accidents, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, previous MI, Killip Class, Q wave MI, MI site, peripheral vascular disease Thrombolytic treatment, discharge medication
Bettencourt et al. [14] Age, sex None
GRACE [19] Age, sex, geographical region, previous angina, previous MI, previous PCI/CABG, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, chronic heart failure, Killip class, blood pressure, heart rate Thrombolytic treatment, catheterization, PCI, CABG, aspirin, UFH, LMWH, Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor, ACE-inhibitor, calcium channel blocker, beta-blocker, statin
CADILLAC [27] Age, sex, Killip class ≥ 2, MI site, previous MI, previous CABG, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, LAD culprit vessel, triple vessel disease, baseline TIMI 0 or 3 Stent randomization, abciximab randomization, time from MI to ER, time from ER to first balloon
SYNERGY [24] Age, gender, creatinine clearance, heart rate, history of CHF, diabetes, baseline rales, ST depression on baseline ECG, weight, peripheral vascular disease, Killip class 3 or 4, No positive biomarkers at randomization, T-wave inversion on baseline ECG Enoxaparin vs. UFH
Gaspar et al. [16] Age, left ventricular dysfunction, Killip class > 1, ST-elevation ACS None
Aune et al. [7] Age, s-creatinine, previous left ventricular systolic dysfunction, interaction term (current smoking/strategy) Invasive strategy, aspirin, statin
  1. ACE-inhibitor, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor; CABG, coronary artery bypass grafting; CAD, coronary artery disease; CHF, congestive heart failure; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; ER, emergency room; LAD, left anterior descending artery; LMWH, low molecular weight heparin; MI, myocardial infarction; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention; PTCA, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty; UFH, unfractionated heparin.