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Table 1 Summary of aging-related diseases affected by caloric restriction in experimental animal models and clinical trialsa

From: Epigenetic regulation of caloric restriction in aging

Diseases Findings Rodents Nonhuman primates Humans References
Cancer CR prevents a broad range of cancer incidences, including breast and gastrointestinal cancer. Y Y Y/? [17, 13, 23]
Diabetes CR improves glucose homeostasis and prevents diabetes. Y Y Y [18, 13, 23, 24]
Cardiovascular diseases CR lowers blood pressure and favorably alters lipid profile, resulting in significantly reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease and related complications. Y Y Y [19, 13, 2224]
Neurodegenerative diseases CR reduces aging-associated neuronal loss and neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Y Y Y/? [20, 13, 23]
Immune deficiencies CR delays the onset of T-lymphocyte-dependent autoimmune diseases. Y Y/? Y/? [21]
  1. aCR, caloric restriction; Y, CR has effects on relevant physiological changes; Y/?, not resolved or not reported.