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Table 2 Selected genes regulated by epigenetic factors during caloric restrictiona

From: Epigenetic regulation of caloric restriction in aging

Genes Gene functions in aging Epigenetic regulation CR effects References
p16 INK4a Tumor suppressor gene that inhibits cell cycle and accumulates during aging DNA methylation, histone acetylation (mediated by SIRT1 and HDAC1) and histone methylation Downregulation [31, 84]
p53 Tumor suppressor gene that induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and senescence; increased p53 promotes aging Histone acetylation (mediated by SIRT1) Downregulation [8890]
H-ras Oncogene that accelerates aging DNA methylation Downregulation [30]
RUNX3 Transcription factor that plays important roles in development; increases methylation with aging DNA methylation Up regulation [53, 55]
Foxo Forkhead transcription factors that control various biological functions and involve SIRT1-related longevity Histone acetylation (mediated by SIRT1) Downregulation [91, 92]
Ku70 A component of the NHEJ pathway for DSB repair that regulates apoptosis and DNA repair during aging Histone acetylation (mediated by SIRT1) Downregulation [99, 100]
PGC-1α Regulates mitochondrial function and glucose homeostasis and interacts with SIRT1 to regulate glucose metabolism during CR Histone acetylation (mediated by SIRT1) Upregulation [34, 83, 93, 94]
hTERT Tumor promoting gene; increased hTERT expression is correlated with telomerase activation and aging delay Histone acetylation (mediated by HDAC1) and histone methylation Upregulation [31]
  1. aCR, caloric restriction; hTERT, human telomerase reverse transcriptase; HDAC1, histone deacetylase 1; SIRT1, Sirtuin (silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog) 1; NHEJ, non-homologous end joining; DSB, DNA double-strand break.