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Table 4 Estimates of effect on primary outcome indicators a , comparing outcome in intervention versus control communities

From: Findings from the SASA! Study: a cluster randomized controlled trial to assess the impact of a community mobilization intervention to prevent violence against women and reduce HIV risk in Kampala, Uganda

Primary outcome indicators Baseline Follow-up
  Intervention Control Intervention Control Unadjusted RRa(95% CI) Adjusted RRb(95% CI)
Reduced social acceptance of gender inequality and IPV       
Acceptability of physical violence by a man against his partner       
• Male attitudes 112/419 (27%) 107/445 (24%) 136/768 (18%)c 544/634 (86%)c 0.13 (0.01 to 1.19) 0.13 (0.01 to 1.15)
• Female attitudes 214/373 (57%) 203/343 (59%) 191/599 (32%)c 311/528 (59%)c 0.54 (0.37 to 0.79) 0.54 (0.38 to 0.79)
Acceptability that a woman can refuse sex       
• Male attitudes 223/419 (53%) 251/447 (56%) 744/768 (97%)c 474/634 (75%)c 1.31 (0.98 to 1.77) 1.31 (1.00 to 1.70)
• Female attitudes 152/374 (41%) 123/342 (36%) 542/599 (90%)c 385/529 (73%)c 1.26 (1.04 to 1.53) 1.28 (1.07 to 1.52)
Decrease in women’s experience of IPV       
Past year physical IPV 75/302 (25%) 57/273 (21%) 46/504 (9%) 93/424 (22%) 0.45 (0.14 to 1.46) 0.48 (0.16 to 1.39)
Pasty year sexual IPV 38/303 (13%) 31/273 (11%) 70/504 (14%) 84/423 (20%) 0.76 (0.33 to 1.74) 0.76 (0.33 to 1.72)
Improved response to women experiencing IPV       
Appropriate community response to women experiencing IPV in past year - - 28/102 (27%) 18/139 (13%) 1.91 (0.46 to 7.94) 2.11 (0.52 to 8.59)d
Decrease in sexual risk behaviors       
Past year concurrent sexual partners among non-polygamous men partnered in past year 109/270 (40%) 105/284 (37%) 139/508 (27%) 177/397 (45%) 0.60 (0.35 to 1.02) 0.57 (0.36 to 0.91)
  1. aRisk ratios calculated at the cluster-level, both crude and adjusted ratios adjusting for community-pair, and weighted according to the number of observations per village. bAdjusted risk ratios generated on the basis of expected number of events from a logistic regression model on individual data with independent variables including age, marital status and EA-level summary baseline measure of outcome indicator.
  2. cAttitudinal outcomes were revised between baseline and follow-up to provide more valid measures - a baseline/follow-up comparison is therefore not possible. dBaseline measure controlled for: disclosed past year IPV and got helpful response. CI, confidence interval; IPV, intimate partner violence; RR, risk ratio.